Excited Delirium Deaths in Custody: Past and Present

@article{Grant2009ExcitedDD,
  title={Excited Delirium Deaths in Custody: Past and Present},
  author={Jami R Grant and Pamela E Southall and Joan Mealey and Shauna R. Scott and David R. Fowler},
  journal={The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology},
  year={2009},
  volume={30},
  pages={1-5}
}
First identified in institutionalized psychiatric populations, chronic excited delirium syndrome was not uncommon in the first half of the 20th century. After a temporal pause, excited delirium re-emerged in the 1980s, in an acute form. Generally occurring in victims without organic mental disease, acute excited delirium is associated with stimulant abuse. This exploratory research examines the evolution of excited delirium deaths in custody to determine if medical examiner cases in Maryland… 
The syndrome of excited delirium
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  • 2014
TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
A typical ExDS case is presented and existing literature is reviewed for current treatment options to better find consensus on the issues of definition, diagnosis, and treatment.
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TLDR
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TLDR
A case of cocaine‐induced excited delirium in a cocaine “body packer” or a “mule”, specifically an individual who attempts to smuggle cocaine within the body is presented.
Brain biomarkers for identifying excited delirium as a cause of sudden death.
TLDR
Dopamine transporter levels were below the range of values measured in age-matched controls, providing pathologic evidence for increased risk of chaotic dopamine signaling in excited delirium.
Successful Management of Excited Delirium Syndrome with Prehospital Ketamine: Two Case Examples
  • J. Ho, Stephen W. Smith, +4 authors W. Heegaard
  • Medicine
    Prehospital emergency care : official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the National Association of State EMS Directors
  • 2013
TLDR
These are among the first case reports in the literature of ExDS survival without complication using this novel prehospital sedation management protocol and bears further study and surveillance by the prehospital care community for evaluation of side effects and unintended complications.
The role of restraint in fatal excited delirium: a research synthesis and pooled analysis
TLDR
The results of the study indicate that a diagnosis of ExDS is far more likely to be associated with both aggressive restraint and death, in comparison with AgDS, at odds with previously published theories indicating that ExDS-related death is due to an occult pathophysiologic process.
Distinguishing features of Excited Delirium Syndrome in non-fatal use of force encounters.
TLDR
There is the ability for law enforcement officers to consistently recognize and report features of ExDS that have been associated with ARD, which indicates that some features are more distinguishing than others, which may enable narrowing the scope of features that represent ExDS.
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