Excitatory Cholinergic and Purinergic Signaling in Bladder Are Equally Susceptible to Botulinum Neurotoxin A Consistent with Co-Release of Transmitters from Efferent Fibers

  title={Excitatory Cholinergic and Purinergic Signaling in Bladder Are Equally Susceptible to Botulinum Neurotoxin A Consistent with Co-Release of Transmitters from Efferent Fibers},
  author={Gary W. Lawrence and Kei Roger Aoki and J Oliver Dolly},
  journal={Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics},
  pages={1080 - 1086}
Mediators of neuromuscular transmission in rat bladder strips were dissected pharmacologically to examine their susceptibilities to inhibition by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and elucidate a basis for the clinical effectiveness of BoNT/A in alleviating smooth muscle spasms associated with overactive bladder. BoNT/A, BoNT/C1, or BoNT/E reduced peak and average force of muscle contractions induced by electric field stimulation (EFS) in dose-dependent manners by acting only on neurogenic… 

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