Excitation spectrum as a resource for efficient two-qubit entangling gates

@article{Solenov2014ExcitationSA,
  title={Excitation spectrum as a resource for efficient two-qubit entangling gates},
  author={Dmitry Solenov and Sophia E. Economou and Thomas L. Reinecke},
  journal={Physical Review B},
  year={2014},
  volume={89},
  pages={155404}
}
Physical systems representing qubits typically have one or more accessible quantum states in addition to the two states that encode the qubit. We demonstrate that active involvement of such auxiliary states can be beneficial in constructing entangling two-qubit operations. We investigate the general case of two multistate quantum systems coupled via a quantum resonator. The approach is illustrated with the examples of three systems: self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots, NV centers in diamond… 
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* Electronic address: d.solenov@gmail.com; Present address: Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave

    This means that both the corresponding transition energies and matrix elements for these transitions must be identical

      Traditionally the lowest energy state is defined as having zero excitations, the next state as having one excitation, and so on