Excessive hexosamines block the neuroprotective effect of insulin and induce apoptosis in retinal neurons.


In addition to microvascular abnormalities, neuronal apoptosis occurs early in diabetic retinopathy, but the mechanism is unknown. Insulin may act as a neurotrophic factor in the retina via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Excessive glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) is implicated in the development of insulin… (More)


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