Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response

  title={Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response},
  author={Santos E. Perez-Pozo and Jesse D. Schold and Takafumi Nakagawa and Laura Gabriela S{\'a}nchez-Lozada and R J Johnson and Julian Lopez Lillo},
  journal={International Journal of Obesity},
Background:Excessive fructose intake causes metabolic syndrome in animals and can be partially prevented by lowering the uric acid level. We tested the hypothesis that fructose might induce features of metabolic syndrome in adult men and whether this is protected by allopurinol.Methods:A randomized, controlled trial of 74 adult men who were administered 200 g fructose daily for 2 weeks with or without allopurinol. Primary measures included changes in ambulatory blood pressure (BP), fasting… 

Possible Involvement of Up-regulated Salt Dependent Glucose Transporter-5 (SGLT5) in High-fructose Diet-induced Hypertension

Findings may indicate that the high-fructose diet increased sodium reabsorption principally through up-regulated SGLT5, finally causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

Uric acid and hypertension: a focused review and practical recommendations.

This review advocates lifestyle changes to maintain uric acid levels within the normal range in young (pre)hypertensive individuals or normotensives with a family history of hypertension, metabolic disorders, or obesity.

Fructose‐Containing Sugars Do Not Raise Blood Pressure or Uric Acid at Normal Levels of Human Consumption

Research indicates that higher-than-normal daily intake of fructose intake may lead to a host of metabolic changes, including hyperuricemia, and this study demonstrated that acute consumption of 24 ounces of high-fructose corn syrup–sweetened beverages led to significant changes in metabolic biomarkers in healthy men and women.

Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects, and men and women in the highest quartile of fructose intakes had higher risk of the metabolic syndrome.

Direct renal effects of a fructose-enriched diet: interaction with high salt intake.

  • G. AresP. Ortiz
  • Medicine
    American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • 2015
This minireview focuses on the acute effect of fructose intake and its effect on salt regulation, as they affect blood pressure.

Differences in acute metabolism of fructose between hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects

A glucose and fat rich meal is associated with delayed absorption and/or metabolism of fructose in HD patients as well as increased serum uric acid levels.

Low-fructose diet lowers blood pressure and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Low-fructose diet in subjects with CKD can reduce inflammation with some potential benefits on BP, and this pilot study needs to be confirmed by a larger clinical trial to determine the long-term benefit of a low-f fructose diet compared to other diets in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Uric Acid - Key Ingredient in the Recipe for Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome

Animal and epidemiological studies support the notion that elevated serum uric acid levels play an important role in promoting insulin resistance and hypertension and suggest potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of the CRS and associated cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease.

Consumption of fructose- but not glucose-sweetened beverages for 10 weeks increases circulating concentrations of uric acid, retinol binding protein-4, and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in overweight/obese humans

Consumption of fructose at 25% of energy requirements for 10 wks, compared with isocaloric consumption of glucose, may contribute to the development of components of the metabolic syndrome by increasing circulating uric acid, GGT activity, suggesting alteration of hepatic function, and the production of RBP-4.



A causal role for uric acid in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

The first evidence that uric acid may be a cause of metabolic syndrome is provided, possibly due to its ability to inhibit endothelial function, as well as a reduced vasodilatory response of aortic artery rings to acetylcholine.

Hypothesis: could excessive fructose intake and uric acid cause type 2 diabetes?

It is proposed that excessive fructose intake (>50 g/d) may be one of the underlying etiologies of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and simple public health measures could have a major impact on improving the overall health of the populace.

Nocturnal hypertension in mice consuming a high fructose diet

Fructose ingestion acutely elevates blood pressure in healthy young humans.

Results show that ingestion of glucose and fructose drinks is characterized by specific hemodynamic responses, and fructose ingestion elicits an increase in blood pressure that is probably mediated by a increase in cardiac output without compensatory peripheral vasodilatation.

The fructose-fed rat: a review on the mechanisms of fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertension

The role of sympathetic nervous system overactivation, increased production of vasoconstrictors, such as endothelin-1 and angiotensin II, and prostanoids in the development of hypertension in fructose-fed rats is addressed.

Blood lipid distribution of hyperinsulinemic men consuming three levels of fructose.

Plasma triglyceride increased significantly as fructose in the diets of the hyperinsulinemics increased, but was not affected in the controls, and these changes in blood lipids are associated with heart disease.

Combination of Captopril and Allopurinol Retards Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

A high fructose diet can induce metabolic syndrome even in the setting of caloric restriction, and the combined therapy was synergistic, with significant reduction in blood pressure, less accumulation of abdominal fat, an improvement in the dyslipidemia and a complete prevention of insulin resistance.

Effects of dietary fructose on plasma glucose and hormone responses in normal and hyperinsulinemic men.

It is indicated that moderate levels of dietary fructose can produce undesirable changes in glucose metabolism of both normal and hyperinsulinemic men.

Female rats are protected against fructose-induced changes in metabolism and blood pressure.

It is demonstrated that females do not develop hypertension or hyperinsulinemia upon fructose feeding except after ovariectomy, suggesting that female sex hormones may confer protection against the effects of a fructose diet.

Thiazide diuretics exacerbate fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

It is suggested that potassium depletion and hyperuricemia in rats exacerbates endothelial dysfunction and lowers the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which blocks insulin activity and causes insulin resistance during thiazide usage.