Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia

  title={Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia},
  author={Cengiz Cinnioğlu and Roy J. King and Toomas Kivisild and Ersi Abaci Kalfoglu and Sevil Atasoy and Gianpiero L. Cavalleri and Anita Lillie and Charles C. Roseman and Alice A. Lin and Kristina Prince and Peter J. Oefner and Peidong Shen and Ornella Semino and Luca L. Cavalli-Sforza and Peter A. Underhill},
  journal={Human Genetics},
Analysis of 89 biallelic polymorphisms in 523 Turkish Y chromosomes revealed 52 distinct haplotypes with considerable haplogroup substructure, as exemplified by their respective levels of accumulated diversity at ten short tandem repeat (STR) loci. The major components (haplogroups E3b, G, J, I, L, N, K2, and R1; 94.1%) are shared with European and neighboring Near Eastern populations and contrast with only a minor share of haplogroups related to Central Asian (C, Q and O; 3.4%), Indian (H, R2… 
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The distribution of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplogroups and short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes was determined in a sample of 102 unrelated men of Arab origin from


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High frequency of haplogroup I in Croatian populations and the phylogeographic pattern in its background STR diversity over Europe make Adriatic coast one likely source of the recolonization of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum.
Y-chromosomal DNA variation in Pakistan.
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Hierarchical patterns of global human Y-chromosome diversity.
A nested cladistic analysis (NCA) demonstrated that both population structure processes (recurrent gene flow restricted by isolation by distance and long-distance dispersals) and population history events were instrumental in explaining this tripartite division of global NRY diversity.
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These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift.
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The Turkic language was introduced in Anatolia at the start of this millennium, by nomadic Turkmen groups from Central Asia, and the most reliable estimates suggest roughly 30% Central Asian admixture for both mitochondrial and Y-chromosome loci.
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A multistep process for the dispersal of a Y chromosomal lineage in the Mediterranean area.
A microsatellite-defined Y-chromosomal lineage identified by us and reported in previous studies, whose geographic distribution and antiquity appear to be compatible with the Neolithic spread of farmers suggests that its spread was associated to a population expansion, with a high rate of male gene flow in the Turkish-Greek area.
Dual origins of Finns revealed by Y chromosome haplotype variation.
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