Examining the use of tramadol hydrochloride as an antidepressant.

  title={Examining the use of tramadol hydrochloride as an antidepressant.},
  author={Justin Barber},
  journal={Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology},
  volume={19 2},
Tramadol (Ultram, Ultracet) is a centrally acting synthetic opioid with analgesic efficacy comparable to codeine. Antinociception is attributed to low but effective affinity for the mu-opioid receptor (μ), as well as reuptake inhibition of the monoamines norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5HT). Dual action antidepressants mirtazapine (Remeron), duloxetine (Cymbalta), and most notably venlafaxine (Effexor), which tramadol is closely related to in structure, also inhibit NE and 5HT reuptake… CONTINUE READING
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