Examining the influence of drivers' characteristics during traffic stops with police: Results from a national survey

@article{Engel2004ExaminingTI,
  title={Examining the influence of drivers' characteristics during traffic stops with police: Results from a national survey},
  author={Robin S. Engel and Jennifer M. Calnon},
  journal={Justice Quarterly},
  year={2004},
  volume={21},
  pages={49 - 90}
}
The factors that influence officer decision making after a traffic stop is initiated are examined using the Police-Public Contact Survey data collected in 1999. This investigation of police behavior is framed with an understanding of the organizational roots of racial profiling tactics and policies. The findings show that young black and Hispanic males are at increased risk for citations, searches, arrests, and uses of force after other extralegal and legal characteristics are controlled… 
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