Examining the Validity of Approximations to Fully Three-Dimensional Shallow-Water Acoustic Propagation through Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves


The anisotropic nature of most oceanic sound speed structures, which have longer horizontal characteristic scale lengths than vertical ones, means that horizontal refraction of sound can often be neglected in computations. Cases of especially strong lateral sound-speed variation, such as in steep nonlinear internal gravity waves, where horizontal refraction… (More)

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