Examining the Intricacies of Promotion Standardization: Factors Influencing Advertising Message and Packaging

  title={Examining the Intricacies of Promotion Standardization: Factors Influencing Advertising Message and Packaging},
  author={David A. Griffith and Aruna Chandra and John K. Ryans},
  journal={Journal of International Marketing},
  pages={30 - 47}
Standardization of promotional elements in an international context is an important issue faced by multinational managers and has been the subject of debate for several decades. However, to date, few empirical studies have examined the intricacies of this issue, and thus there is little guidance for academics or practitioners. This study empirically examines the influence of four factors—market similarity, process standardization, environmental similarity, and mode of entry—on two elements of… 

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