Examination marks of male university students positively correlate with finger length ratios (2D:4D)

  title={Examination marks of male university students positively correlate with finger length ratios (2D:4D)},
  author={Maria Romano and Barbara Leoni and Nicola Saino},
  journal={Biological Psychology},
Human digit ratios depend on birth order and sex of older siblings and predict maternal fecundity
2:4D and 4D:H may represent powerful tools to investigate the relationships between fetal environment, offspring phenotype and maternal life history at mechanistic and evolutionary levels and suggest that maternal fecundity co-varies with length ratios.
The Relationship of Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Gender-Role Orientation in Four National Samples
Abstract. The ratio of second to fourth finger length (2D:4D ratio) is sexually dimorphic with women having higher 2D:4D ratio than men. Recent studies on the relationship between 2D:4D ratio and
Digit Ratio : An Indicator to the World Within
The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length known as digit ratio (2D:4D) is an indicator of prenatal androgen exposure. The 2D:4D ratio is sexually dimorphic, with average male 2D:4D
2D:4D Asymmetry and Gender Differences in Academic Performance
This work provides the first evidence of a non-linear, quadratic, relationship between 2D:4D and academic achievement using samples from Moscow and Manila and finds that there is a gender differentiated link between various measures of academic achievement and measured digit ratios.
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and performance in Indian swimmers.
Low 2D:4D in male swimmers suggests they are more prenatally programmed via long-lasting extra genital effects of testosterone, and could be used to identify young sports personnel who have potential to reach high levels of performance.
Sexual dimorphism in digit length ratios of the second to fourth digits (2D:4D) in two species of green toads (Pelobates syriacus Boettger, 1889 and Bufo viridis (Laurenti, 1768))
It could be concluded that the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D of Pelobates syriacus species is consistent with those in most amphibians and diapsids.
Prenatal programming of sporting success: Associations of digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker for prenatal androgen action, with world rankings in female fencers
Findings extend related evidence suggestive of prenatal programming of aptitude across a variety of sports, especially running and soccer, to known extragenital effects of prenatal testosterone that apparently promote sporting success in adult life.


Second to fourth digit ratio and male ability in sport: implications for sexual selection in humans.
  • J. ManningR. Taylor
  • Education
    Evolution and human behavior : official journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
  • 2001
Masculinized Finger Length Patterns in Human Males and Females with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Results are consistent with the idea that prenatal androgen exposure reduces the 2D:4D and plays a role in the establishment of the sex difference in human finger length patterns, and finger lengths may offer a retrospective marker of perinatal androgens exposure in humans.
The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length and male homosexuality.
  • RobinsonManning
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Evolution and human behavior : official journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
  • 2000
Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone and perceived male dominance
High prenatal levels of testosterone serve to ‘organize’ male facial features to subsequently reflect dominance and masculine characteristics presumably activated during puberty, and attractiveness is not directly related to testosterone levels.
In-utero androgen exposure and 2nd to 4th digit length ratio-comparisons between healthy controls and females with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
2D:4D ratios determined directly from radiographs of the left hand confirm significant differences between males and females, however, female patients with virilizing CAH do not have a male digit ratio pattern suggesting that in theleft hand digit ratio development is not influenced by in-utero exposure to androgens.
Relative Lengths of Fingers and Toes in Human Males and Females
For both homosexual females and homosexual males, nearly all of the length ratios for fingers were intermediate to those for heterosexual females and heterosexual males; that is, the ratios of homosexual females were masculinized and those of homosexual males were hypomasculinized, but few of these differences were significant.