Exaggerated Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Knockout (VIP−/−) Mice with Cyclophosphamide (CYP)-Induced Cystitis

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is an immunomodulatory neuropeptide distributed in micturition pathways. VIP−/− mice exhibit altered bladder function and neurochemical properties in micturition pathways after cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. Given VIP’s role as an anti-inflammatory mediator, we hypothesized that VIP−/− mice would exhibit… (More)