Evolving force balance during incipient subduction

  title={Evolving force balance during incipient subduction},
  author={Michael Gurnis and Chad E. Hall and Luc L. Lavier},
Nearly half of all active subduction zones initiated during the Cenozoic. All subduction zones associated with active back arc extension have initiated since the Eocene, hinting that back arc extension may be intimately associated with an interval (several tens of Myr) following subduction initiation. That such a large proportion of subduction zones are young indicates that subduction initiation is a continuous process in which the net resisting force associated with forming a new subduction… 
Stress transition from horizontal to vertical forces during subduction initiation
Subduction zones are fundamental to plate tectonics, yet how they initiate remains enigmatic. Geodynamic models suggest that if horizontal forces dominate, the upper plate experiences compression and
Subduction initiation: spontaneous and induced
Rapid subduction initiation and magmatism in the Western Pacific driven by internal vertical forces
Using numerical models, the authors show that subduction initiation was dominated by vertical forces, internal to the system itself, progressing to self-sustained subduction.
Self-replicating subduction zone initiation by polarity reversal
Subduction zones have recurrently formed on Earth. Previous studies have, however, suggested that they are unlikely to start in the interior of a pristine ocean. Instead, they seem to be more likely
Dynamics of intraoceanic subduction initiation: 1. Oceanic detachment fault inversion and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites
Subduction initiation is a critical link in the plate tectonic cycle. Intraoceanic subduction zones can form along transform faults and fracture zones, but how subduction nucleates parallel to
Forced subduction initiation recorded in the sole and crust of the Semail Ophiolite of Oman
Subduction zones are unique to Earth and fundamental in its evolution, yet we still know little about the causes and mechanisms of their initiation. Numerical models show that far-field forcing may
Subduction initiation in nature and models: A review
Dynamics of subduction initiation with different evolutionary pathways
Changes of plate motion may have induced subduction initiation (SI), but the tectonic history of SI is different from one subduction zone to another. Izu‐Bonin‐Mariana (IBM) SI, accompanied by strong
uture directions in subduction modeling
During the last four decades, subduction remained one of the most challenging and captivating geodynamic processes investigated with numerical techniques. While significant progress has been made


Dynamics of subduction initiation at preexisting fault zones
We show that a new subduction zone can initiate at a preexisting dipping fault zone with reasonable plate forces, consistent with what is observed in the western Pacific. The dynamics of subduction
On the initiation of subduction zones
Analysis of the relation between intraplate stress fields and lithospheric rheology leads to greater insight into the role that initiation of subduction plays in the tectonic evolution of the
Initiation of subduction zones along transform and accreting plate boundaries, triple-junction evolution, and forearc spreading centres—implications for ophiolitic geology and obduction
Summary Most large ophiolite complexes have been interpreted as representing the obducted remnants of oceanic basement of forearc regions. A knowledge of the tectonic setting of ophiolite formation
On the initiation of subduction
Estimates of shear resistance associated with lithospheric thrusting and convergence represent lower bounds on the force necessary to promote trench formation. Three environments proposed as
Initiation of subduction zones: implications for arc evolution and ophiolite development
  • D. Karig
  • Geology
    Geological Society, London, Special Publications
  • 1982
Summary The initial location of trenches with respect to continental margins is a critical factor in the nature of the forearc region and its subsequent evolution, as well as for the interpretation
Subduction zone infancy: Examples from the Eocene Izu-Bonin-Mariana and Jurassic California arcs
A new model for the earliest stages in the evolution of subduction zones is developed from recent geologic studies of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system and then applied to Late Jurassic
Back-arc opening and the mode of subduction
Trench-arc systems (subduction zones) can be classified into two types depending on whether or not actively opening back-arc basins are associated with them. This suggests that subduction of an
Morphostructure of an incipient subduction zone along a transform plate boundary: Puysegur Ridge and Trench
Multibeam bathymetric and geophysical data reveal a major strike-slip fault that extends along the summit of the Puysegur Ridge east of the Puysegur Trench. The northward structural development of