Evolving Refractory Major Depressive Disorder Diagnostic and Treatment Paradigms: Toward Closed-Loop Therapeutics

  title={Evolving Refractory Major Depressive Disorder Diagnostic and Treatment Paradigms: Toward Closed-Loop Therapeutics},
  author={Matthew P. Ward and Pedro P. Irazoqui},
  journal={Frontiers in Neuroengineering},
  • M. Ward, P. Irazoqui
  • Published 1 March 2010
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Frontiers in Neuroengineering
Current antidepressant therapies do not effectively control or cure depressive symptoms. Pharmaceutical therapies altogether fail to address an estimated 4 million Americans who suffer from a recurrent and severe treatment-resistant form of depression known as refractory major depressive disorder. Subjective diagnostic schemes, differing manifestations of the disorder, and antidepressant treatments with limited theoretical bases each contribute to the general lack of therapeutic efficacy and… 

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