Evolutionary origin of endochondral ossification: the transdifferentiation hypothesis

  title={Evolutionary origin of endochondral ossification: the transdifferentiation hypothesis},
  author={Fret Cervantes-D{\'i}az and Pedro Gonzalo Palacios Contreras and Sylvain Marcellini},
  journal={Development Genes and Evolution},
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing… 
Endochondral ossification and the evolution of limb proportions
  • C. Rolian
  • Biology
    Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Developmental biology
  • 2020
Comparative evidence in mammals and birds suggests the existence of developmental biases that favor evolutionary changes in some of these cellular mechanisms over others in driving limb allometry, and chondrocyte population size may evolve more readily in response to selection than hypertrophic chondROcyte size.
Bone defect reconstruction via endochondral ossification: A developmental engineering strategy
This review introduces the concept and mechanism of developmental BTE, explores the routes of endochondral bone graft engineering, highlights the current state of the art in large bone defect reconstruction via ECO-based strategies, and offers perspectives on the challenges and future directions of translating current knowledge from the bench to the bedside.
It takes two: Building the vertebrate skull from chondrocranium and dermatocranium.
Novel 3D reconstructions of the embryonic chondrocranium in relation to forming dermal and cartilage bones in laboratory mice across three embryonic days are provided to provide support for the established hypothesis that the vertebrate dermal (exo-) skeleton and endoskeleton evolved as distinct structures and remain distinct.
Collagen type X is essential for successful mesenchymal stem cell-mediated cartilage formation and subsequent endochondral ossification.
The present study investigated the importance of COLX by shRNA-mediated gene silencing in primary MSCs and found that a significant knock-down ofCOLX disrupted the production of extracellular matrix key components and the secretion profile of chondrogenically differentiated MSCS.
Bone Morphology is Regulated Modularly by Global and Regional Genetic Programs
The development of protrusions along long bones in mice is coordinated by a patterning mechanism involving global and regional genetic regulation, which further supports the notion that long bone development is a modular process.
Understanding tissue-engineered endochondral ossification; towards improved bone formation.
Endochondral ossification (EO) is the process by which the long bones of the body form and has proven to be a promising method in tissue engineering for achieving cell-mediated bone formation. The
Histological and molecular characterization of the growing nasal septum in mice
The hyaline Cartilage of the nasal septum is quite distinct from growth plate hyaline cartilage, and caution should be taken before assigning cartilage properties to less well‐defined cartilage structures using these commonly used markers.
Skeletal Mineralization in Association with Type X Collagen Expression Is an Ancestral Feature for Jawed Vertebrates
These findings push the origin of Col10a1 gene prior to the divergence of osteichthyans and chondrichthyans, and demonstrate its ancestral association with mineralization of both the odontode skeleton and the endoskeleton.


On the evolutionary relationship between chondrocytes and osteoblasts
Comparative transcriptomics may revolutionize understanding of not only the clade-specific evolution of skeletal cells, but also the generation of evolutionary novelties, providing a modern paradigm for the evolutionary process.
Regulation of skeletogenic differentiation in cranial dermal bone
It is found that activity of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) is required for neural crest-derived mesenchyme to commit to the osteogenic pathway and that both Indian hedgehog and parathyroid hormone-related protein negatively regulate the transition from preosteoblastic progenitors to osteoblasts.
Dual pathways to endochondral osteoblasts: a novel chondrocyte-derived osteoprogenitor cell identified in hypertrophic cartilage
Following the cell fate of hypertrophic chondrocytes by genetic lineage tracing using BACCol10;Cre induced YFP-reporter gene expression, it is proposed the Col10Cre-labeled CDOP cells mark the initiation point of a second pathway giving rise to endochondral osteoblasts, alternative to perichondrium derived osteoprogenitor cells.
The genetic program for cartilage development has deep homology within Bilateria
It is shown that protostome and deuterostome cartilage share structural and chemical properties, and that the mechanisms of cartilage development are extensively conserved, suggesting that the chondrogenic gene regulatory network evolved in the common ancestor of Bilateria.
Hypertrophic chondrocytes can become osteoblasts and osteocytes in endochondral bone formation
The discovery of a chondrocyte-to-osteoblast lineage continuum revises concepts of the ontogeny of osteoblasts, with implications for the control of bone homeostasis and the interpretation of the underlying pathological bases of bone disorders.
Endochondral ossification: how cartilage is converted into bone in the developing skeleton.
Chondrocytes Transdifferentiate into Osteoblasts in Endochondral Bone during Development, Postnatal Growth and Fracture Healing in Mice
Results show that both chondrocytes prior to initial ossification and growth plate chondROcytes before or after birth have the capacity to undergo transdifferentiation to become osteoblasts.
Ihh signaling is directly required for the osteoblast lineage in the endochondral skeleton
It is suggested that Ihh acts in vivo on a potential progenitor cell to promote osteoblast and prevent chondrocyte differentiation, suggesting a synergistic effect between ectopic Ihh and endogenous factors such as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs).
Evolution of the osteoblast: skeletogenesis in gar and zebrafish
The surprising finding that the "chondrogenic" transcription factor sox9 is expressed in developing osteoblasts of both zebrafish and gar can help explain the expression of chondrocyte genes in osteobasts of ray-finned fish.