Evolutionary genetics of genome merger and doubling in plants.

  title={Evolutionary genetics of genome merger and doubling in plants.},
  author={Jeff J. Doyle and Lex E. Flagel and Andrew H. Paterson and Ryan A. Rapp and Douglas E. Soltis and Pamela S. Soltis and Jonathan F. Wendel},
  journal={Annual review of genetics},
Polyploidy is a common mode of evolution in flowering plants. The profound effects of polyploidy on gene expression appear to be caused more by hybridity than by genome doubling. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying genome-wide changes in expression are as yet poorly understood; only methylation has received much study, and its importance varies among polyploids. Genetic diploidization begins with the earliest responses to genome merger and doubling; less is known about chromosomal diploidization… 

Genome Evolution in Plants

The genomes of land plants vary dramatically in size and chromosome number, and ongoing studies are clarifying the processes that shape their composition, structure and function, including polyploidy and horizontal gene transfer.

Rarely successful polyploids and their legacy in plant genomes.

Natural Pathways to Polyploidy in Plants and Consequences for Genome Reorganization

The last decade highlighted polyploidy as a rampant evolutionary process that triggers drastic genome reorganization, but much remains to be understood about their causes and consequences in both

Epigenetic and developmental regulation in plant polyploids.

Fractionization of Polyploid Duplicated Genes: Gene Loss, Expression Divergence, and Epigenetic Regulation in Brassica napus

This chapter introduced generation and loss of duplicated genes in multiple cycles of whole-genome duplication and described expression divergence of duplicates, particularly those homeologous genes.

Duplications and Turnover in Plant Genomes

An overview of how duplication-driven genomic turn-over has influenced the evolution and diversity of plant genomes is provided.

Responses of Transposable Elements to Polyploidy

It is argued that the study of polyploid systems not only offers the opportunity to highlight specific mechanisms controlling the activity of TEs but also the evolutionary impact of TE-induced genome reorganization.

Genomic asymmetry in allopolyploid plants: wheat as a model.

It is suggested that the process of cytological diploidization leading to exclusive intra-genetic meiotic pairing and, consequently, to complete avoidance of inter-genomic recombination, has two contrasting effects: it provides a means for the fixation of positive heterotic inter- genomic interactions and also maintains genomic asymmetry resulting from loss or silencing of genes.

Molecular Tools for Exploring Polyploid Genomes in Plants

The accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists to understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement.

The evolutionary significance of polyploidy

How, once polyploidy has been established, the unique retention profile of duplicated genes following whole-genome duplication might explain key longer-term evolutionary transitions and a general increase in biological complexity is discussed.



Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants.

Genome evolution in polyploids

Processes and mechanisms of gene and genome evolution in polyploids are reviewed, including the role of transposable elements in structural and regulatory gene evolution; processes and significance of epigenetic silencing; underlying controls of chromosome pairing and mechanisms and functional significance of rapid genome changes are reviewed.

Polyploidy and Novelty in Flowering Plants

  • D. Levin
  • Biology
    The American Naturalist
  • 1983
Evidence is presented herein from biochemical, physiological, developmental, and genetical sources which indicates that the nucleotypic effects of chromosome doubling are not necessarily negative, and indeed chromosome doubling may "propel" a population in to a new adaptive sphere, and render it capable of occupying habitats beyond the limits of its diploid progenitor.

Rapid genome change in synthetic polyploids of Brassica and its implications for polyploid evolution.

It is demonstrated that polyploid species can generate extensive genetic diversity in a short period of time and genetic divergence among the derivatives of synthetic polyploids was evident from variation in genome composition and phenotypes.

Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms for gene expression and phenotypic variation in plant polyploids.

  • Z. Chen
  • Biology
    Annual review of plant biology
  • 2007
There is compelling evidence that changes in DNA sequence, cis- and trans-acting effects, chromatin modifications, RNA-mediated pathways, and regulatory networks modulate differential expression of homoeologous genes and phenotypic variation that may facilitate adaptive evolution in polyploid plants and domestication in crops.

Mechanisms of genomic rearrangements and gene expression changes in plant polyploids.

  • Z. ChenZ. Ni
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2006
The origins and forms of polyploidy are reviewed, transcriptome divergence between the progenitors and in the newly formed allopolyploids are shown and models for transcriptional regulation, chromatin modification and RNA-mediated pathways in establishing locus-specific expression of orthologous and homoeologous genes are proposed.

Paleopolyploidy and gene duplication in soybean and other legumes.

Advances in the study of polyploidy since Plant speciation

Despite the recent advances in the understanding of polyploid evolution, many exciting aspects remain under-investigated, and some of these include the consequences of genetic and genomic changes in naturalpolyploid populations, the physiological and ecological effects of polyPLoidy, and whether recurrent polyploidsy prompts evolution to repeat itself.

Organ-Specific Silencing of Duplicated Genes in a Newly Synthesized Cotton Allotetraploid

A detailed portrayal of gene silencing events that can occur following allopolyploidization is provided and epigenetic causal factors are suggested.

Rapid differentiation of homeologous chromosomes in newly-formed allopolyploid wheat

This paper reviews studies on the effect of allopolyploidization on several low-copy, non-coding sequences that exist in all the diploid species of the tribe Triticeae, including the progenitors of polyploids wheat, but in polyploid wheat they occur in only one genome.