Evolutionary conservation of the PA-X open reading frame in segment 3 of influenza A virus.

@article{Shi2012EvolutionaryCO,
  title={Evolutionary conservation of the PA-X open reading frame in segment 3 of influenza A virus.},
  author={Mang Shi and Brett W. Jagger and Helen M. Wise and Paul Digard and Edward C. Holmes and Jeffery K. Taubenberger},
  journal={Journal of virology},
  year={2012},
  volume={86 22},
  pages={12411-3}
}
PA-X is a fusion protein of influenza A virus encoded in part from a +1 frameshifted X open reading frame (X-ORF) in segment 3. We show that the X-ORFs of diverse influenza A viruses can be divided into two groups that differ in selection pressure and likely function, reflected in the presence of an internal stop codon and a change in synonymous diversity. Notably, truncated forms of PA-X evolved convergently in swine and dogs, suggesting a strong species-specific effect. 

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Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA(N) reveals an endonuclease active site

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Crystal structure of the polymerase PA(C)-PB1 (N) complex from an avian influenza H5N1 virus

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