Facing the experience of pain: a neuropsychological perspective.
The genetic basis of rest–activity circadian alternation in animal behavior is considered in the evolutionary range from bacteria to mammals. We scrutinize various concepts of sleep development in the animal world evolution as well as the I.G. Karmanova’s theory of the sleep–wake cycle evolution in vertebrates, beginning from wakefulness–primary sleep (or protosleep) in fish and amphibians through wakefulness–intermediate sleep in reptiles to wakefulness–slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS) in birds and mammals. Primary sleep is represented by the three major sleep-like immobility states: catalepsy, catatonia and cataplexy. The main behavioral, somatovegetative and neurophysiological characteristics of primary sleep and the ancient activation pattern during primary sleep are described. The issues of which of these sleep manifestations are homologous to SWS, PS, hibernation and stress response are discussed. In conclusion, the general diagram of sleep evolution in vertebrates is presented, and the I.G. Karmanova’s contribution to evolutionary somnology is highlighted.