Evolutionary Robotic Approaches in Primate Gait Analysis

@article{Sellers2010EvolutionaryRA,
  title={Evolutionary Robotic Approaches in Primate Gait Analysis},
  author={William Irvin Sellers and Todd Colin Pataky and Paolo Caravaggi and Robin H. Crompton},
  journal={International Journal of Primatology},
  year={2010},
  volume={31},
  pages={321-338}
}
Understanding how primates move is particularly challenging because many of the experimentation techniques that would normally be available are unsuitable for ethical and conservation reasons. We therefore need to develop techniques that can maximize the data available from minimally intrusive experimentation. One approach for achieving this is to use evolutionary robotic techniques to build a musculoskeletal simulation and generate movement patterns that optimize some global parameter such as… 

Exploring Diagonal Gait Using a Forward Dynamic Three-Dimensional Chimpanzee Simulation

TLDR
A biologically realistic computer simulations of primate gait that enable the constraints of biomechanical loading and the energetics of different modes of locomotion to be explored for the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes suggest that diagonal walking gaits in primates are selected for by multiple factors.

Investigating the running abilities of Tyrannosaurus rex using stress-constrained multibody dynamic analysis

TLDR
A new approach is presented that combines two separate biomechanical techniques (multibody dynamic analysis and skeletal stress analysis) to demonstrate that true running gaits would probably lead to unacceptably high skeletal loads in T. rex.

March of the Titans: The Locomotor Capabilities of Sauropod Dinosaurs

TLDR
This model represents the best current simulation of the gait of these giant animals, and it is likely that there are as yet unknown mechanical mechanisms, possibly based on passive elastic structures that should be incorporated to increase the efficiency of the animal's locomotion.

Evaluation of the minimum energy hypothesis and other potential optimality criteria for human running

TLDR
Predictive computer simulations of running using an anatomically inspired musculoskeletal model and data collected from human runners suggest a potential control strategy centred on muscle activation for economical running.

Architecture and functional ecology of the human gastrocnemius muscle‐tendon unit

TLDR
The human pygmy phenotype is a potential model system for exploring the range of ecomorphological variation in the architecture of human hindlimb muscles, a concept that is reviewed here.

Understanding the evolution of the windlass mechanism of the human foot from comparative anatomy: Insights, obstacles, and future directions.

TLDR
The main elements thought to be involved in the production of an effective, modern human-like windlass mechanism are reviewed, including the triceps surae, plantar aponeurosis, medial longitudinal arch, and metatarsophalangeal joints.

Adaptation of the non-human great ape lower limb in response to locomotor behaviour

TLDR
Overall, this thesis outlines the subtle differences present between closely related species of primates, indicating that morphological adaptations occur in response to external loading during locomotor behaviour.

A 3D musculoskeletal model of the western lowland gorilla hind limb: moment arms and torque of the hip, knee and ankle

TLDR
The first musculoskeletal model of a western lowland gorilla hind limb is presented and it is argued that the model provides more accurate and reliable moment arm data than previously published data on the gorilla because it incorporates more detailed consideration of the 3D geometry of muscles and the geometric constraints that exist on their lines‐of‐action about limb joints.

More than energy cost: Multiple benefits of the long Achilles tendon in human walking and running

TLDR
Benefits of long Achilles tendons are consistent with the hypothesis that running gaits used by the authors' ancestors exerted substantial evolutionary pressure on Achilles tendon length, and are greater at faster locomotor speeds.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 81 REFERENCES

Evaluating alternative gait strategies using evolutionary robotics

TLDR
A bipedal simulator that spontaneously generates walking and running gaits is demonstrated that can be customized to represent a range of hominoid morphologies and used to predict performance parameters such as preferred speed and metabolic energy cost.

Predicting the metabolic energy costs of bipedalism using evolutionary robotics

TLDR
Initial work suggests that in the future this technique could be used to estimate other locomotor parameters such as top speed, and the animations produced by this technique are qualitatively very convincing, which suggests that this may also be a useful technique for visualizing bipedal locomotion.

Estimating dinosaur maximum running speeds using evolutionary robotics

  • W. SellersP. Manning
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2007
TLDR
Simple musculoskeletal models of three extant and five extinct bipedal species are presented and it is concluded that the values presented for the five extinct species are reasonable predictions given the modelling assumptions made.

Biomimetic robotics should be based on functional morphology

TLDR
The qualitative conclusions are that human walking is an interplay between masses, gravity and elasticity, which is modulated by musculature, and anthropomorphic robots that do not use the trunk for purposes of motion are not truly humanoid.

Sensitivity Analysis in Evolutionary Robotic Simulations of Bipedal Dinosaur Running

TLDR
A sensitivity analysis is performed on an evolutionary robotics model of the non-avian theropod dinosaur Allosaurus, used previously to estimate maximum running speed, to highlight the importance of sensitivity analyses in biomechanical modeling of extinct taxa, particularly where values for soft tissues parameters are not tightly constrained.

Computer optimization of a minimal biped model discovers walking and running

TLDR
A minimal model is used that can describe walking and running as well as an infinite variety of other gaits, and computer optimization is used to find which gaits are indeed energetically optimal for this model.

Neuromusculoskeletal computer modeling and simulation of upright, straight-legged, bipedal locomotion of Australopithecus afarensis (A.L. 288-1).

TLDR
A full three-dimensional reconstruction and forward-dynamic simulation of upright bipedal locomotion of this ancient human ancestor generated a smooth locomotor kinematics, and the predicted energy expenditure was appropriate for upright bipingal walking in an individual of Lucy's body size.

Is Achilles tendon compliance optimised for maximum muscle efficiency during locomotion?

Stride lengths, speed and energy costs in walking of Australopithecus afarensis: using evolutionary robotics to predict locomotion of early human ancestors

TLDR
Techniques from evolutionary robotics are used to predict the most energy-efficient upright walking gait for the early human relative Australopithecus afarensis, based on the proportions of the 3.2 million year old AL 288-1 ‘Lucy' skeleton, and matches predictions against the nearly contemporaneous Laetoli fossil footprint trails.

Primate morphophysiology, locomotor analyses and human bipedalism

This volume, which honors Shiro Kondo on the occasion of his retirement, provides a biological-behavioral data base for assessing what makes human bipedalism unique among primates and how it evolved.
...