Evolutionary Rate at the Molecular Level

  title={Evolutionary Rate at the Molecular Level},
  author={Motoo Kimura},
  • M. Kimura
  • Published 17 February 1968
  • Biology
  • Nature
Calculating the rate of evolution in terms of nucleotide substitutions seems to give a value so high that many of the mutations involved must be neutral ones. 

Parsimony in evolution, a natural fact.

Protein Polymorphism as a Phase of Molecular Evolution

It is proposed that random genetic drift of neutral mutations in finite populations can account for observed protein polymorphisms.

Molecular Evolution in the Descent of Man

Three computer programs applied to data from phylogenetic trees and protein polymorphism can be used to find the rate of molecular evolution of different species. It can be shown that this is slower

Substitution times for mutant nucleotides

It is shown that, for one model of genetic evolution, the times at which mutations at nucleotide sites become fixed in a population tend to cluster together rather than behave as a Poisson process.

Silent nucleotide substitutions and the molecular evolutionary clock.

Half of the nucleotide substitutions during the evolutionary divergence of genes in animals, bacteria, and viruses are silent changes. These result from an inherent biochemical property of DNA and

Gene Duplication and Nucleotide Substitution in Evolution

There may be a great deal of gene duplication and also nonsense DNA in today's vertebrates.

Non-Darwinian Evolution: Consequences for Neutral Allelic Variation

A test is made of the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the rate of evolutionary change and the degree of neutral allelic variation in populations using data on haemoglobin variants in

Rates of molecular evolution: The hominoid slowdown

  • M. Goodman
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 1985
It is proposed that early in phylogeny a large proportion of amino acid substitutions were selectively neutral, but that bursts of adaptive substitutions during major radiations of life so increased

Functional Organization of Genetic Material as a Product of Molecular Evolution

A sequence of events in which originally rare molecular mutants (DNA changes) spread into the species and two important classes of mutations are nucleotide (or amino-acid) replacement and gene duplication.

Mutational pressure as the main cause of molecular evolution and polymorphism

The advent of detailed studies on the evolution of individual molecules has cast into doubt some of the neo-Darwinian concepts of what determines evolutionary change. Much more emphasis must now be



On the evolutionary adjustment of spontaneous mutation rates

The possibility cannot be excluded that the spontaneous mutation rate is near the minimum that may be attained under the present mode of organization of the genetic material, and at the same time is not very far from the optimum in the sense of minimizing the genetic load.

A molecular approach to the study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations. I. The number of alleles at different loci in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

cornerstone of the theory of evolution by gradual change is that the rate of A evolution is absolutely limited by the amount of genetic variation in the evolving population. FISHER’S “Fundamental

Some Problems of Stochastic Processes in Genetics

In the present paper, the following five topics have been selected for mathematical discussion and new results are presented: random assortment of subunits of a gene, process of natural selection in a finite population, chance of fixation of mutant genes, population structure and evolution.

A molecular approach to the study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations. II. Amount of variation and degree of heterozygosity in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura.

This study shows that there is a considerable amount of genic variation segregating in all of the populations studied and that the real variation in these populations must be greater than the authors are able to demonstrate.

C. Genetics of Man Enzyme polymorphisms in man

  • H. Harris
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1966
The work I am going to discuss was largely aimed at trying to get some idea of the extent and character of genetically determined enzyme diversity among what may be regarded as normal individuals.

Evolution by mutation

I t is not possible for me to represent the high tradition of Josiah Willard Gibbs by offering you a mathematical treatment. Nevertheless, the subject of biological evolution and its mechanism must