Evolutionary History of Terrestrial Pathogens and Endoparasites as Revealed in Fossils and Subfossils

  title={Evolutionary History of Terrestrial Pathogens and Endoparasites as Revealed in Fossils and Subfossils},
  author={George Poinar},
The present work uses fossils and subfossils to decipher the origin and evolution of terrestrial pathogens and endoparasites. Fossils, as interpreted by morphology or specific features of their hosts, furnish minimum dates for the origin of infectious agents, coevolution with hosts, and geographical locations. Subfossils, those that can be C14 dated (roughly under 50,000 years) and are identified by morphology as well as molecular and immunological techniques, provide time periods when humans… Expand
The ecological role of microsymbionts in the interaction of plants and herbivorous insects
The obtained data show that the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the interaction of plants and pathogens or pests is incomplete without knowledge about the role of “hidden players,” microsymbionts that are present in both parties. Expand
Parasitoid biology preserved in mineralized fossils
This work examines 1510 phosphatized fly pupae from the Paleogene of France and identifies 55 parasitation events by four wasp species, providing morphological and ecological data and highlighting the need to investigate ecological data preserved in the fossil record. Expand
The Importance of Fossils in Understanding the Evolution of Parasites and Their Vectors.
The potential of the fossil record and other lines of geological evidence to calibrate the origin and evolution of parasitism by combining different kinds of dating evidence with novel molecular clock methodologies is demonstrated. Expand
Estimated divergence times of Hirsutella (asexual morphs) in Ophiocordyceps provides insight into evolution of phialide structure
The results showed that certain phialide characteristics of Hirsutella were phylogenetically informative for two groups of taxa, and suggested that a common origin allowed for diversification of given clades into separate niches. Expand
Fossil Record of Viruses, Parasitic Bacteria and Parasitic Protozoa
It is clear that invertebrate and vertebrate viruses were well established by the mid-Cretaceous and many of these pathogens resemble those being transmitted today to a range of vertebrate hosts by arthropod vectors. Expand
Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.
The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. Expand
From Fossil Parasitoids to Vectors: Insects as Parasites and Hosts.
The high abundance of parasitism in the fossil record of insects can reveal important aspects of parasitic lifestyles in various evolutionary lineages, including phylogenetic systematics, functional morphology and a direct comparison of fossil and extant species. Expand
The Geological Record of Parasitic Nematode Evolution.
  • G. Poinar
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Advances in parasitology
  • 2015
This chapter discusses the evolutionary history of nematode parasites of invertebrates, vertebrates and plants based on fossil remains in amber, stone and coprolites dating from the Palaeozoic to theExpand
Vertebrate coprolites (fossil faeces) : An underexplored Konservat-Lagerstatte
It is concluded that soft-tissue inclusions in coprolite are sources of two important lines of information: the fossils can be put in a direct palaeoecological context, and characters of extinct taxa are more likely preserved in the phosphate-rich taphonomic microenvironment of coprolites than elsewhere. Expand
A timetree for phytoplasmas (Mollicutes) with new insights on patterns of evolution and diversification.
Maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from the 16S rRNA and methionine aminopeptidase genes yielded well resolved estimates of phylogenetic relationships among major phytoplasma lineages, 16Sr groups and known strains of phy toplasmas. Expand


Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician.
Fossilized fungal hyphae and spores from the Ordovician of Wisconsin strongly resemble modern arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes), indicating that Glomales-like fungi were present at a time when the land flora most likely only consisted of plants on the bryophytic level. Expand
Out of Africa: origins of the Taenia tapeworms in humans
Phylogenetic and divergence date analyses indicate that the occurrence of Taenia tapeworms in humans pre–dates the development of agriculture, animal husbandry and domestication of cattle (Bos spp.)Expand
Archaeoparasitology in North America.
  • K. Reinhard
  • Geography, Medicine
  • American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1990
It is clear that prehistoric peoples in the Americas were host to a variety of human parasites, some of which were not previously thought to be present before historic times. Expand
Trichuris eggs in animal coprolites dated from 30,000 years ago.
Results indicate that K. rupestris was a host for an unknown Trichuris species not found in this rodent presently, and climate changes that occurred by 10,000 yr ago in the region could be the cause of its disappearance. Expand
Evidence of intestinal parasites of dinosaurs
Protozoan cysts and helminth eggs preserved in a coprolite from the Early Cretaceous Bernissart Iguanodon shaft in Belgium demonstrate that representatives of 3 phyla parasitized dinosaurs by thatExpand
Molecular evidence linking hominid evolution to recent radiation of schistosomes (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda).
A calibration of the phylogenetic tree of schistosomes is proposed that dates "human capture" of these parasites from other animal hosts in Africa to 1-10 million years ago, when the first hominids invaded savanna areas, which are the favorable environment for parasite transmission. Expand
First Fossil Record of Endoparasitism of Adult Ants (Formicidae: Hymenoptera) by Braconidae (Hymenoptera)
This discovery of a parasitoid wasp larva emerging from an adult ant in Eocene Baltic amber shows that ant parasitism by Braconidae was well established some 40 million years ago. Expand
A fossil smut fungus from the anthers of an Eocene angiosperm
This unequivocal fossil of the Ustilaginales shows that at least 48 million years ago the order had representatives with anthericolous sori, a characteristic of some extant smut taxa that permits effective insect dispersal of the fungus among populations of specific host plants. Expand
Evidence of vector-borne disease of Early Cretaceous reptiles.
The present study identifies these blood cells as reptilian and describes putative developing amastigotes inside spherical to oval whitish vacuoles within some of the fossil blood cells. Expand
The ultrastructure of microorganisms in the tissues of Casinaria infesta (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae)
Abstract Two types of microorganisms were observed in the tissues of Casinaria infesta . Type I was a typical rickettsialike microorganism which occurred in digestive, reproductive, nerous,Expand