Evolutionary History of Lorisiform Primates

  title={Evolutionary History of Lorisiform Primates},
  author={D. Tab Rasmussen and Kimberley Nekaris},
  journal={Folia Primatologica},
  pages={250 - 285}
We integrate information from the fossil record, morphology, behavior and molecular studies to provide a current overview of lorisoid evolution. [] Key Result Plesiopithecus teras is a Nycticebus-sized, nocturnal prosimian from the late Eocene, Fayum, Egypt, that shares cranial specializations with lorisoids, but it also retains primitive features (e.g. four premolars) and has unique specializations of the anterior teeth excluding it from direct lorisiform ancestry.
Chapter 12 – Fossil Prosimians
Galagidae (Lorisoidea, Primates)
An additional specimen of a fossil galagid was recently recovered from the Upper Laetolil Beds at Laetoli in northern Tanzania. This new find represents the most complete specimen of a galagid known
Reconstructing the evolutionary history of the Lorisidae using morphological, molecular, and geological data.
Information is presented regarding a temporary land bridge that linked the two now widely separated regions inhabited by lorisids that may explain their distribution and taxonomic recommendations are made based on the results.
Anthropoid versus strepsirhine status of the African Eocene primates Algeripithecus and Azibius: craniodental evidence
New data support the idea that Algeripithecus and its sister genus Azibius are the earliest offshoots of an Afro–Arabian strepsirhine clade that embraces extant toothcombed primates and their fossil relatives and strongly challenge the role of Africa as the ancestral homeland for anthropoids.
Remarkable ancient divergences amongst neglected lorisiform primates
The results obtained in this study suggest that lorisiform diversity remains substantially underestimated and that previously unnoticed cryptic diversity might be present within many lineages, thus urgently requiring a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this primate group.
Djebelemur, a Tiny Pre-Tooth-Combed Primate from the Eocene of Tunisia: A Glimpse into the Origin of Crown Strepsirhines
These new fossil data suggest that the differentiation of the tooth-comb must postdate the djebelemurid divergence, a view which constrains the timing of crown strepsirhine origins to the Middle Eocene, and then precludes the existence of unrecorded lineage extinctions of tooth-combed primates during the earliest Tertiary.
Phylogenetic relationships among the Lorisoidea as indicated by craniodental morphology and mitochondrial sequence data
A series of phylogenetic analyses based on 635 base pairs from two mitochondrial genes with and without 36 craniodental characters for 11 galagid and five lorisid taxa found monophyly of the Lorisidae and Galagidae and no support for the taxonomy of Galagoides is found.
Evolution and development of the strepsirrhine primate skull
This thesis shows that the cranial morphology of the Omomyidae – a basal haplorrhine taxon comprising the genera Rooneyia, Necrolemur and Microchoerus – is closer to that of extant strepsirrhines than to thatof haplor rhines, while the cranio-mandibular morphology of Tarsius is closer than that of other extant haplor Rhines, i.e., the anthropoids.
Earliest known crown-group salamanders
The discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamander from China constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest relatives) and provides evidence to support the hypothesis that the divergence of the Cryptobranchidae from the Hynobiidae had taken place in Asia before the Middle Jurassic period.
Molecular Evidence of Primate Origins and Evolution
In this chapter, the most recent molecular evidence on the higher level relationships of primates is reviewed, from their nearest interordinal relatives to relationships among families and some subfamilies, and presents the most recently published estimates of divergence times.


Immunodiffusion Evidence on the Phylogeny of the Primates
Simpson's Prosimii and Anthropoidea are both polyphyletic assemblages of the Primates to the extent that the anthropoid grade was reached independendy in different lineages.
Interrelationships among primate higher taxa
Features of the ankle and wrist joints of several adapiform taxa provide an independent test of the preceding hypotheses and suggest that lemuriforms are monophyletic with respect to knownAdapiforms, but that adAPiforms nevertheless are their stem lineage (sensu Ax26).
A remarkable cranium of Plesiopithecus teras (Primates, Prosimii) from the Eocene of Egypt.
  • E. Simons, D. Rasmussen
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1994
It can now be demonstrated that Plesiopithecus justifies establishment of a new family and superfamily, and the new superfamily apparently lies closer to the toothcomb prosimians (strepsirhines) than to any other known primate group.
Afrotarsius chatrathi, first tarsiiform primate (? Tarsiidae) from Africa
Afrotarsius chatrathi is the first known tarsiiform primate from Africa and its molar tooth morphology is most similar to that of the European Eocene microchoerine Pseudoloris; however, the closest similarity is to the molars of Tarsius.
First skulls of the Early Eocene primate Shoshonius cooperi and the anthropoid-tarsier dichotomy
The anatomy of four skulls of the early Eocene omomyid Shoshonius cooperi — the first cranial material recovered for this genus—strongly suggests that ShOSHonius shares a more recent common ancestry with Tarsius than do either anthropoids or other Eocene Omomyids for which cranial anatomy is known.
Diagnosis and Differentiation of the Order Primates
It is found that there exists no evidence for either an "archaic primate" or a prosimian or an anthropoid grade and the goals of which can be much better served by a phylogenetic (not cladistic) classification.
The Different Meanings of a Tarsioid — Anthropoid Clade and a New Model of Anthropoid Origin
Since the early part of this century there has been widespread but not universal acceptance of the idea that among the living prosimians the species most closely related to anthropoids are the extant