Evolution of vertebrate viviparity and specializations for fetal nutrition: A quantitative and qualitative analysis

@article{Blackburn2015EvolutionOV,
  title={Evolution of vertebrate viviparity and specializations for fetal nutrition: A quantitative and qualitative analysis},
  author={Daniel G. Blackburn},
  journal={Journal of Morphology},
  year={2015},
  volume={276}
}
Phylogenetic analyses indicate that viviparity (live‐bearing reproduction) has originated independently in more than 150 vertebrate lineages, including a minimum of 115 clades of extant squamate reptiles. Other evolutionary origins of viviparity include 13 origins among bony fishes, nine among chondrichthyans, eight in amphibians, one in Paleozoic placoderms, six among extinct reptiles, and one in mammals. The origins of viviparity range geologically from the mid‐Paleozoic through the Mesozoic… 

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Change of lecithotrophic to matrotrophic nutrition during gestation in the viviparous teleost Xenotoca eiseni (Goodeidae)

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