Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors.

  title={Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors.},
  author={Susanne Dreborg and G{\"o}rel Sundstr{\"o}m and Tomas A. Larsson and Dan Larhammar},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  volume={105 40},
The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and… CONTINUE READING
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