Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals

@article{Hazen2009EvolutionOU,
  title={Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals},
  author={Robert M. Hazen and Rodney C. Ewing and Dimitri A. Sverjensky},
  journal={American Mineralogist},
  year={2009},
  volume={94},
  pages={1293 - 1311}
}
Abstract The origins and near-surface distributions of the ~250 known uranium and/or thorium minerals elucidate principles of mineral evolution. This history can be divided into four phases. The first, from ~4.5 to 3.5 Ga, involved successive concentrations of uranium and thorium from their initial uniform trace distribution into magmatic-related fluids from which the first U4+ and Th4+ minerals, uraninite (ideally UO2), thorianite (ThO2), and coffinite (USiO4), precipitated in the crust. The… 

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