Evolution of uncontrolled proliferation and the angiogenic switch in cancer.

  title={Evolution of uncontrolled proliferation and the angiogenic switch in cancer.},
  author={John D. Nagy and Dieter Armbruster},
  journal={Mathematical biosciences and engineering : MBE},
  volume={9 4},
The major goal of evolutionary oncology is to explain how malignant traits evolve to become cancer ``hallmarks." One such hallmark---the angiogenic switch---is difficult to explain for the same reason altruism is difficult to explain. An angiogenic clone is vulnerable to ``cheater" lineages that shunt energy from angiogenesis to proliferation, allowing the cheater to outcompete cooperative phenotypes in the environment built by the cooperators. Here we show that cell- or clone-level selection… CONTINUE READING
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Evolutionarily singular stategies and the adaptive growth and branching of the evolutionary tree

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