Evolution of the power stroke in early Equoidea (Perissodactyla, Mammalia)

  title={Evolution of the power stroke in early Equoidea (Perissodactyla, Mammalia)},
  author={Sandra Engels and Julia A. Schultz},
  journal={Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments},
  • Sandra Engels, J. Schultz
  • Published 4 August 2018
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments
During the early evolution of Equoidea, two families co-existed, Equidae and Palaeotheriidae. Both groups show a similar ancestral molar morphology and evolved from bunodont to lophodont or selenolophodont (lophodont with crescent-shaped cutting edge in some form) respectively, with a clearly pronounced ectoloph. Fossils of the here studied brachydont equids and palaeotheriids are known from the early Eocene to the middle Miocene in North America and Eurasia. Due to the rich fossil record… 
Evolutionary trends in the mastication patterns in some perissodactyls, cetartiodactyls, and proboscideans
Both tooth shape and mode of mastication gained an enormous variability during the evolution of large herbivorous mammals, which allowed them to exploit diverse ecological niches. The variability in
Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis ( OFA ) reveals dental occlusal behavior in primate molars
Dental wear patterns are the result of the biomechanical interplay between dental hard tissue, ingested food, incorporated environmental grit, and chemical processes induced by saliva and food itself, and the morphology of the antagonistic Occlusal surface permanently adapts to individual occlusal dynamics.


Function of pretribosphenic and tribosphenic mammalian molars inferred from 3D animation
This functional study on the teeth of Late Jurassic Dryolestes leiriensis and the living marsupial Monodelphis domestica shows that pretribosphenic and tribosphenIC molars show fundamental differences of food reduction strategies, representing a shift in dental function during the transition of tribospenic mammals.
Dental Function and Diet of Vintana Sertichi (Mammalia, Gondwanatheria) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar
Vintana was almost certainly an herbivore whose diet may have included relatively large, hard food items such as roots, seeds, twigs, or nut-like fruits and was capable of producing bite forces that were more than twice as high as the similarly sized Myocastor.
The milk‐molars of Perissodactyla, with remarks on molar occlusion.
The hypothesis is put forward that the order of development of the cusps depends upon their different sensitivities to the graded morphogenetic conditions in the developing jaw.
  • L. Radinsky
  • Biology, Geography
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1966
Dental evidence indicates that perissodactyls were derived from the condylarth family Phenacodontidae, and Tetraclaenodon is the most advanced form which is still unspecialized enough to have given rise to Hyracotherium.
Early chewing mechanisms in mammalian herbivores
The retention of large paraconules and metaconules in the upper molars, cusps essentially lost in the periptychids, preadapted the phenacodontid pattern for later development of the oblique lophodonty and translatory chewing component characteristic of perissodactyls (horses and their relatives), the dominant herbivores of the Eocene.
Jaw movement and tooth use in recent and fossil primates.
The results suggest that the observed changes in the morphology of the jaw apparatus have probably occurred within the limits set by a pre-existing behavioral pattern.
Comparative dental occlusal morphology, facet development, and microwear in two sympatric species of Listriodon (Mammalia: Suidae) from the middle Miocene of western Anatolia (Turkey)
The between-species difference is much stronger for moderately worn teeth than for little-worn or much-worn teeth, and the difference between species is most marked for the phase II facets, which also have the largest wear features.
Early Eocene fossils suggest that the mammalian order Perissodactyla originated in India.
New dental, cranial and postcranial fossils of Cambaytherium, from the Cambay Shale Formation, Gujarat, India are reported, demonstrating that cambaytheres occupy a pivotal position as the sister taxon of Perissodactyla.
Complete skeleton of Eurohippus messelensis (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Equoidea) from the early middle Eocene of Grube Messel (Germany)
The skeleton of a pregnant mare of the European equoid Eurohippus messelensis from the early middle Eocene of Grube Messel, Germany, is described in the first detailed description of an individual skeleton of this species since Haupt.