Evolution of the cytochromeb gene of mammals

  title={Evolution of the cytochromeb gene of mammals},
  author={David M. Irwin and Thomas D. Kocher and Allan Charles Wilson},
  journal={Journal of Molecular Evolution},
SummaryWith the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and versatile primers that amplify the whole cytochromeb gene (∼ 1140 bp), we obtained 17 complete gene sequences representing three orders of hoofed mammals (ungulates) and dolphins (cetaceans). The fossil record of some ungulate lineages allowed estimation of the evolutionary rates for various components of the cytochromeb DNA and amino acid sequences. The relative rates of substitution at first, second, and third positions within codons are in… 
Cytochromeb gene of marine mammals: Phylogeny and evolution
Human and elephant cytochromeb amino acid sequences were found to evolve the most rapidly, while those of myomorph rodents evolved slowest, suggesting that the hippopotamus may be the extant artiodactyl species that is most closely related to the cetaceans.
Evolution of the primate cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene
In congruence with previous studies on COII, it was found that the monkeys and apes have undergone a nearly two-fold increase in the rate of amino acid replacement relative to other primates.
Evolutionary genetics of the suiformes as reconstructed using mtDNA sequencing
We have amplified and sequnced the entire mitochondrial DNA cytochromeb gene from four species of Suidae: babirusa, warthog, bearded pig, and some specimens belonging to different subspecies and
Molecular analysis off the phylogeny off 11 genera off the Corvidae
The cytochrome b data provide good evidence for the monophyly of the Corvidae, including the Piapiac Ptilostomus afer in spite of its aberrant morphology, unlike the Palearctic jays, which are not closely related.
The cytochrome b region in the mitochondrial DNA of the ant Tetraponera rufoniger: Sequence divergence in hymenoptera may be associated with nucleotide content
The high A + T%, the biased codon usage, and the increased PPC divergence of Hymenoptera can in that respect most easily be explained by directional mutation pressure which began in the Upper Carboniferous and still occurs in most members of the order.
Evolutionary analysis of cytochrome b sequences in some perciformes: Evidence for a slower rate of evolution than in mammals
Quantitative evolutionary analysis, carried out by using a markovian stochastic model, clarifies some phylogenetic relationships within the Perciformes order, particularly in the Scombridae family, and between Percirds, Gadiformes, Cypriniforms, and Acipenseriformes.
Varying percent sequence divergence was observed in different parts of the genome suggesting that different constraints operate across the genome, and previous hypotheses regarding the structuring of Atlantic salmon populations are tested.
A complete mitochondrial DNA molecule of the white-handed gibbon, Hylobates lar, and comparison among individual mitochondrial genes of all hominoid genera
The sequence of the complete mitochondrial genome of the white-handed gibbon, Hylobates lar, was determined and showed that the rate of the NADH6 and NADH4L genes of the gibbon is much faster than that of the other hominoids.
Phylogenetic Relationships Among Cetaceans Revealed by Y-Chromosome Sequences
The low homoplasy exhibited by the Y-chromosome data presented here suggests that an extended data set incorporating longer sequences would provide better resolution of cetacean lower-level pylogeny.
Identification of a broad spectrum of mammalian and avian species using the short fragment of the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome b gene
The results of the analysis of a 127 bp long fragment of MT-CYB, amplified using universal primers, variable enough to be used for species identification and discrimination, even in highly degraded animal samples are presented.


Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers.
The polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify homologous segments of mtDNA from more than 100 animal species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes, and some invertebrates, and the unexpectedly wide taxonomic utility of these primers offers opportunities for phylogenetic and population research.
Mitochondrial DNA sequences of primates: Tempo and mode of evolution
Genealogical analysis of the sequence differences supports the view that the human lineage branched off only slightly before the gorilla and chimpanzee lineages diverged and strengthens the hypothesis that humans are more related to gorillas and chimpanzees than is the orangutan.
Variation in salmonid mitochondrial DNA: Evolutioinary constraints and mechanisms of substitution
Data from 2214 bp of mitochondrial DNA cloned from six Pacific salmonid species show an extremely high ratio of silent to replacement substitutions, consistent with a slower rate of amino acid substitution among the cold-blooded vertebrates when compared to mammals.
Origin of tetrapods inferred from their mitochondrial DNA affiliation to lungfish
Besides supporting the theory that land vertebrates arose from an offshoot of the lineage leading to lungfishes, the molecular tree facilitates an evolutionary interpretation of the morphological differences among the living forms.
The complete nucleotide sequence of theRattus norvegicus mitochondrial genome: Cryptic signals revealed by comparative analysis between vertebrates
The nucleotide sequence of rat mitochondrial DNA, only the fourth mammalian mitochondrial genome to be completely sequenced, is reported, shedding new light on the organization and evolution of the vertebrate mitochondrial genome and open up the way to clearly aimed experimental studies of the regulatory mechanisms in mitochondria.
Shifting constraints on tRNA genes during mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals.
During the evolution of echinoderm mitochondrial (mt) DNA, a transfer RNA gene lost its tRNA function and became part of a protein-coding gene, which now is a 5' extension of the gene for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5).
Molecular phylogeny and evolution of primate mitochondrial DNA.
A phylogenetic tree for the four groups of primates is constructed and suggests that the rate of nucleotide substitution for mtDNAs in hominines (human, chimpanzee, and gorilla) may have slowed down compared with that for old-world monkeys.
Human mitochondrial DNA variation and evolution: analysis of nucleotide sequences from seven individuals.
Analysis of nucleotide sequence variation in an approximately 900-base pair region of the human mitochondrial DNA molecule encompassing the heavy strand origin of replication and the D-loop revealed several significant biases, most notably a strand dependence of substitution type and a 32-fold bias favoring transitions over transversions.
Molecular characterization of a cloned dolphin mitochondrial genome
There is a general tendency throughout the sequenced regions for greater similarity between Dolphin and bovine mt genomes than between dolphin and rodent or human mt genomes.
Evolutionary and developmental aspects of two hemoglobin beta-chain genes (epsilon M and beta M) of opossum.
  • B. Koop, M. Goodman
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1988
Findings reported here indicate that two progenitors of the five linked genes existed by the time of the eutherian (placental mammal)-metatherian (marsupial mammal) split and that these two genes were already differentiated with respect to their promoter regions and developmental expression.