Evolution of proton pumping ATPases: Rooting the tree of life

@article{Gogarten1992EvolutionOP,
  title={Evolution of proton pumping ATPases: Rooting the tree of life},
  author={Johann Peter Gogarten and Lincoln Taiz},
  journal={Photosynthesis Research},
  year={1992},
  volume={33},
  pages={137-146}
}
Proton pumping ATPases are found in all groups of present day organisms. The F-ATPases of eubacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts also function as ATP synthases, i.e., they catalyze the final step that transforms the energy available from reduction/oxidation reactions (e.g., in photosynthesis) into ATP, the usual energy currency of modern cells. The primary structure of these ATPases/ATP synthases was found to be much more conserved between different groups of bacteria than other parts of the… 

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