Evolution of lactation: nutrition v. protection with special reference to five mammalian species

  title={Evolution of lactation: nutrition v. protection with special reference to five mammalian species},
  author={Holly L. McClellan and Susan J. Miller and Peter Hartmann},
  journal={Nutrition Research Reviews},
  pages={97 - 116}
The evolutionary origin of the mammary gland has been difficult to establish because little knowledge can be gained on the origin of soft tissue organs from fossil evidence. One approach to resolve the origin of lactation has compared the anatomy of existing primitive mammals to skin glands, whilst another has examined the metabolic and molecular synergy between mammary gland development and the innate immune system. We have reviewed the physiology of lactation in five mammalian species with… 

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Loss of Egg Yolk Genes in Mammals and the Origin of Lactation and Placentation

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Initiation of Human Lactation: Secretory Differentiation and Secretory Activation

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The Mammary Gland and Its Origin During Synapsid Evolution

  • O. Oftedal
  • Biology
    Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
  • 2004
The mammary gland apparently derives from an ancestral apocrine-like gland that was associated with hair follicles, which is retained by monotreme mammary glands and is evident as vestigial mammary hair during early ontogenetic development of marsupials.

κ-Casein-deficient mice fail to lactate

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