Evolution of genetic redundancy

  title={Evolution of genetic redundancy},
  author={Martin A. Nowak and Maarten Chris Boerlijst and Jonathan Cooke and John M Smith},
Genetic redundancy means that two or more genes are performing the same function and that inactivation of one of these genes has little or no effect on the biological phenotype. Redundancy seems to be widespread in genomes of higher organisms. Examples of apparently redundant genes come from numerous studies of developmental biology, immunology,, neurobiology, and the cell cycle,. Yet there is a problem: genes encoding functional proteins must be under selection pressure. If a gene was truly… 

Genetic redundancies and their evolutionary maintenance.

  • Jianzhi Zhang
  • Biology
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2012
Study of functional redundancies between duplicate genes and those among metabolic reactions that respectively represent genetic redundancies at the individual gene level and at the systems level illustrate the utility of systems analysis for understanding evolutionary phenomena and the importance of evolutionary thinking in uncovering the functions and origins of systemic properties.

Loss of Genetic Redundancy in Reductive Genome Evolution

This work proposes that in the extensive gene loss suffered by reduced genomes there is a selective drive to keep the diversity of protein families while sacrificing paralogy, and proposes that this loss of genetic redundancy due to a decreased selection for robustness in a predictable environment is reflected.

Role of duplicate genes in genetic robustness against null mutations

A genome-wide evaluation of the role of duplicate genes in genetic robustness against null mutations shows that there is a significantly higher probability of functional compensation for a duplicate gene than for a singleton, a high correlation between the frequency of compensation and the sequence similarity of two duplicates, and a higher probability for a severe fitness effect when the duplicate copy that is more highly expressed is deleted.

Engineered Genetic Redundancy Relaxes Selective Constraints upon Endogenous Genes in Viral RNA Genomes

The rates of compensatory evolution for deleterious mutations affecting an essential function, the suppression of RNA silencing plant defense, of tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) genotypes were evolved and the pattern of fitness and virulence recovery evaluated.

The Complexity of Genetic Redundancy

Redundancy is most common in species found in small populations with large genomes for whom neutral processes, dominated by drift, play a significant role and new concepts are required for dealing with multi-locus and context-dependent robustness.

A genetic uncertainty problem.

  • D. Tautz
  • Biology
    Trends in genetics : TIG
  • 2000

Evolution of ribonuclease H genes in prokaryotes to avoid inheritance of redundant genes

This is the first empirical study to show the effect of functional redundancy on changes in gene constitution during the course of evolution and provide two possible evolutionary models for RNase H genes in which functional redundancy contributes to the exclusion of redundant genes from the genome of a species.

Evolutionary Persistence of Functional Compensation by Duplicate Genes in Arabidopsis

It is concluded that duplicate genes contribute to genetic robustness mainly by preserving compensation for severe phenotypic effects in A. thaliana via functional compensation by duplicate genes for a more severe phenotypesic effect tends to be preserved by natural selection for longer time than that for a less severe effect.



Protein polymorphism and the rate of loss of duplicate gene expression

The rate of loss for different proteins following tetraploidy in two independent groups of fish is positively correlated with the tendency for particular proteins to be polymorphic in natural populations of animals, predicted by the ‘neutralist’ hypothesis of protein polymorphism.

Thinking about genetic redundancy.

Evolution of genetic redundancy for advanced players.

  • G. Dover
  • Biology
    Current opinion in genetics & development
  • 1993

On estimating functional gene number in eukaryotes.

Est estimations based on simplifying assumptions of questionable validity indicate that more than 90% of the eukaryotic genome may be composed of nonfunctional or noninformational “junk” DNA.

Seeing double: appreciating genetic redundancy.

This review presents the characteristics of redundant regulation through the use of several well-characterized examples from animals and plants to present models of evolutionary selection that provide new explanations of the perdurance of genetic redundancies in populations.

Time for spreading of compensatory mutations under gene duplication.

It was shown that, when 2Nv- is much less than unity, the time for spreading is greatly shortened by gene duplication as compared with the case of complete linkage between the two sites of mutations, where 2N is the effective population size (haploid) and v- is the rate of compensatory mutations.

Redundancies, development and the flow of information.

  • D. Tautz
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 1992
It is argued here that redundancy of gene actions may, in fact, be a necessary requirement for the development and evolution of complex life forms.

Gene duplication in tetraploid fish: model for gene silencing at unlinked duplicated loci.

A computer simulation of genetic drift affords direct evaluation of the effects of population size, mutation rate, initial allele frequencies, back mutation, fitness, and time on the probability of fixation for null alleles at unlinked duplicate loci and shows that, under most conditions for populations of 2000--3000 or larger, unlinked duplication loci will be sustained in the functional state longer than tandem (linked) duplicates and hence are available for evolution of new functions for a longer time.

Fixation of a deleterious allele at one of two "duplicate" loci by mutation pressure and random drift.

  • M. KimuraJ. L. King
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1979
The main aim of this paper is to investigate the situation in which va = vb exactly, and it can be shown that if va greater than vb mutant a becomes fixed in the population by mutation pressure and a mutation-selection balance is ultimately attained with respect to the B/b locus alone.