Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

  title={Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain},
  author={Vincent S.F.T. Merckx and Kasper P. Hendriks and Kevin K Beentjes and Constantijn B. Mennes and Leontine E. Becking and Katja T.C.A. Peijnenburg and Aqilah Afendy and Nivaarani Arumugam and Hugo J. Boer and Alim Biun and Matsain M. Buang and Ping-ping Chen and Arthur Y. C. Chung and RORY A. Dow and Frida Feijen and Hans R. Feijen and Cobi Feijen-van Soest and J{\'o}zsef Geml and Ren{\'e} Geurts and Barbara Gravendeel and Peter H. Hovenkamp and Paul Y. Imbun and I. B. Ipor and Steven B. Janssens and Merlijn Jocqu{\'e} and Heike Kappes and Eyen Khoo and Pete Koomen and Frederic Lens and Richard J. Majapun and Luis N. Morgado and Suman Shree Neupane and Nico Nieser and Joan T. Pereira and Homathevi Rahman and Suzana Sabran and Anati Sawang and Rachel Schwallier and Phyau-Soon Shim and Harry Smit and N. I. Sol and Maipul Spait and Michael Stech and Frank Robert Stokvis and John Baptist Sugau and Monica Suleiman and Sukaibin Sumail and Daniel C. Thomas and Johan van Tol and Fred Y. Y. Tuh and Bakhtiar Effendi Yahya and Jamili Nais and Rimi Repin and Maklarin bin Lakim and Menno Schilthuizen},
Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here… 
Fast diversification through a mosaic of evolutionary histories characterizes the endemic flora of ancient Neotropical mountains
Analysis of plant diversification dynamics in the campo rupestre, an ecosystem associated with pre-Cambrian mountaintops and highlands of eastern South America, shows a general trend for higher diversification rates associated with these areas, but endemism may also increase or reduce extinction rates, depending on the group.
Mountain endemism in Malesian geckos: can biotic interactions push lizards up hills?
Historical and contemporary processes shaping striking variation in terrestrial biodiversity along elevational gradients have received much attention from evolutionary biologists, often by way of
Diversity, Endemism, and Evolutionary History of Montane Biotas Outside the Andean Region
Mountain ranges are important centers of biodiversity around the world. This high diversity is the result of the presence of different soil types and underlying bedrock, a variety of micro-climatic
Immigration dynamics of tropical and subtropical Southeast Asian limestone karst floras
The most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Old World gesneriads to date based on twelve loci is presented, finding that Southeast Asian karst biodiversity comprises immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local acid soil ancestors, although niche shift from acid soil to karSt in tropical Southeast Asian islands was lacking.
The formation of the Indo-Pacific montane avifauna
Mountain biotas have considerable conservation and research importance, but the formation of montane communities remains incompletely understood. Study of Indo-Pacific island faunas has inspired two
Evolutionary history of the flora of Mexico: Dry forests cradles and museums of endemism
The location of Mexico between two very large landmasses and the fact that more than fifty percent of its surface is arid favored the establishment of tropical lineages adapted to extreme seasonality and aridity, illustrating the signature of the flora of Mexico of areas of endemism with a mixture of neo‐ and paleo‐endemism.
Outstanding diversity and microendemism in a clade of rare Atlantic Forest montane frogs.
Mitogenomes Reveal Multiple Colonization of Mountains by Rattus in Sundaland
Abstract Tropical mountains are cradles of biodiversity and endemism. Sundaland, tropical Southeast Asia, hosts 3 species of Rattus endemic to elevations above 2000 m with an apparent convergence in
Staying cool: preadaptation to temperate climates required for colonising tropical alpine-like environments
  • B. Gehrke
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2018
It is suggested that establishment in tropical alpine-like regions is favoured by preadaptation to a temperate, especially aseasonal, freezing regime such as the cool temperate climate regions in the Tropics.
Evolutionary and ecological forces influencing population diversification in Bornean montane passerines.


Páramo is the world's fastest evolving and coolest biodiversity hotspot
It is demonstrated that average net diversification rates of Páramo plant lineages are faster than those of other reportedly fast evolving hotspots and that the faster evolving lineage are more likely to be found in P €ramos than the other hotspots.
As old as the mountains: the radiations of the Ericaceae.
It is predicted that the interaction of low specific leaf area (SLA) and montane habitats is correlated with increased diversification rates and that the species richness in mountains is the result of increased speciation rather than reduced extinction or increased immigration.
Latitude, elevational climatic zonation and speciation in New World vertebrates
This study quantifies overlap in the climatic distributions of 93 pairs of sister species of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles restricted to either the New World tropics or to the Northern temperate zone to suggest evolutionary conservatism in the thermal niches of tropical taxa, coupled with the greater thermal zonation of tropical mountains, may result in increased opportunities for allopatric isolation, speciation and the accumulation of species in tropical montane regions.
The role of the uplift of the Qinghai‐Tibetan Plateau for the evolution of Tibetan biotas
It is suggested that the biological consequences of the uplift of the QTP would be best understood using a meta‐analysis approach, encompassing studies on a variety of organisms from diverse habitats (forests, meadows, rivers), and thermal belts (montane, subalpine, alpine, nival).
Projected range contractions of montane biodiversity under global warming
A global baseline assessment of geographical range contractions and extinction risk of high-elevation specialists in a future warmer world and the particular roles that the geography of species richness, the spatial structure of lateral and particularly vertical range extents and the specific geography of mountain systems have in determining the vulnerability of montane biodiversity to climate change are demonstrated.
Origin of High-Elevation Dendrochilum Species (Orchidaceae) Endemic to Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
The origin of high-elevation endemics from lower elevation Bornean ancestors appears to be a general mode of evolution for many species on Mount Kinabalu.
Biodiversity from mountain building
To the Editor — Long-term environmental stability has long been thought to lead to the accumulation of species and, therefore, higher diversity1. However, species richness and the time available for
Elevation increases in moth assemblages over 42 years on a tropical mountain
Evidence that tropical insect species have already undertaken altitude increases is provided, confirming the global reach of climate change impacts on biodiversity and urging ecologists to seek other historic tropical samples to carry out similar repeat surveys.
The origin and maintenance of montane diversity: integrating evolutionary and ecological processes
It is proposed that elucidating the relative infl uence of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms can be achieved by taking advantage of the replicated settings aff orded by mountains, combined with targeted experiments along elevational gradients.
Niche filling slows the diversification of Himalayan songbirds
It is shown that body size and shape differences evolved early in the radiation, with the elevational band occupied by a species evolving later, which implies that speciation rate is ultimately set by niche filling, rather than by the rate of acquisition of reproductive isolation.