Evolution of craniofacial novelty in parrots through developmental modularity and heterochrony

@article{Tokita2007EvolutionOC,
  title={Evolution of craniofacial novelty in parrots through developmental modularity and heterochrony},
  author={Masayoshi Tokita and Takuya Kiyoshi and Kyle N. Armstrong},
  journal={Evolution \& Development},
  year={2007},
  volume={9}
}
SUMMARY Parrots (order Psittaciformes) have developed novel cranial morphology. At the same time, they show considerable morphological diversity in the cranial musculoskeletal system, which includes two novel structures: the suborbital arch and the musculus (M.) pseudomasseter. To understand comprehensively the evolutionary pattern and process of novel cranial morphology in parrots, phylogenetic and developmental studies were conducted. Firstly, we undertook phylogenetic analyses based on… 
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