Evolution of blindness in scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha): insight from an expanded sampling of molecular data

  title={Evolution of blindness in scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha): insight from an expanded sampling of molecular data},
  author={Varpu Vahtera and Gregory D. Edgecombe and Gonzalo Giribet},
Relative to its diversity (34 genera, 700 species), Scolopendromorpha has been undersampled in molecular phylogenetic analyses compared with the other chilopod orders. Previous analyses based on morphology have not resolved several key controversies in systematics and evolutionary morphology unambiguously. Here we apply new molecular and morphological data to scolopendromorph phylogenetics, with a focus on the evolution of blindness. The taxonomic sample includes 19 genera, many lacking… 

A scolopocryptopid centipede (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha) from Mexican amber: synchrotron microtomography and phylogenetic placement using a combined morphological and molecular data set

The strength of support for the relationships of extant taxa from the molecular data allow the Chiapas fossil to be assigned with precision, despite ambiguity in the morphological data; the fossil is resolved as sister species to the extant Laurasian clade.

Phylogenetics of scolopendromorph centipedes: can denser taxon sampling improve an artificial classification?

Phylogenetic analyses corroborated the monophyly of most families and tribes but suggested that several species-rich, cosmopolitan genera in traditional and current classifications are polyphyletic.

Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the centipede genus Ethmostigmus Pocock (Chilopoda : Scolopendromorpha) from peninsular India

Two species delimitation methods for DNA sequence data and phylogeny are integrated with morphology and geographic data to propose a well-supported species hypothesis for Ethmostigmus on the peninsular Indian plate, highlighting the value of an integrative approach to systematics.

Mimopidae is the sister group to all other scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha): a phylotranscriptomic approach

A phylogenetic position of Mimopidae as sister group to all other scolopendromorphs with maximal support is supported, showing that the loss of eyes occurred in the common ancestor of the clade leading to Cryptopidae, Plutoniumidae and Scolopocryptopidae.

Phylogeny of Geophilomorpha (Chilopoda) inferred from new morphological and molecular evidence

Strong support is found for the monophyly of Geophilomorpha, the basal dichotomy between Adesmata and Placodesmata = Mecistocephalidae, and thebasis dichotomy withinAdesmata between two clades that are recognized here as superfamilies Himantarioidea and Geophiloidea.

Blind scolopendrid centipedes of the genus Cormocephalus from subterranean habitats in Western Australia (Myriapoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae)

A complex of three new blind species of the genus Cormocephalus Newport, 1844, is described from the subterranean fauna of the central Pilbara region of Western Australia, and can be distinguished using the shape and spinulation of the ultimate leg prefemur.

On the consistency of some taxonomic characters in the Scolopendromorpha and comments on the scolopocryptopid subfamily Kethopinae ( Myriapoda : Chilopoda )

With the increase in taxonomic data it has become apparent that some characters are less reliable as phylogenetic and taxonomic characters in the Scolopendromorpha than previously thought. Examples

Systematic revision and phylogenetic reassessment of the centipede genera Rhysida Wood, 1862 and Alluropus Silvestri, 1912 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha) in Southeast Asia, with further discussion of the subfamily Otostigminae

Morphological revision and molecular phylogenetics using three loci validate seven Rhysida species in SE Asia and Australia and redescribes the monotypic genus Alluropus, which is redescribed, recovering it nesting together with Indo-AustralianRhysida.

Rediscovery and phylogenetic relationships of the scolopendromorph centipede Mimops orientalis Kraepelin, 1903 (Chilopoda): a monotypic species of Mimopidae endemic to China, for more than one century

A genetic analysis was conducted to assess the phylogenetic relationships among MimopFamily, Cryptopidae, Scolopendridae,Scolopocryptop family, and Plutoniumidae, and the results support classifying Mimopidae as a valid family.

First Molecular Data and the Phylogenetic Position of the Millipede-Like Centipede Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae)

Parsimony analysis of 122 morphological characters together with two nuclear and two mitochondrial loci resolves Edentistoma as sister group to three Indo-Australian species of Rhysida, this clade in turn grouping with Ethmostigmus, whereas maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data on their own ally Edentistsoma with species of Otostigmus are analysed.



Phylogeny of scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda): morphological analysis featuring characters from the peristomatic area

New characters from the epipharynx give additional support for the monophyly of several traditional groupings, including Cryptopinae, Scolopendridae, Otostigmini, and Scolobendrini, and a basal resolution of Asanadini within Scolipendruae.

Phylogeny of Henicopidae (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha): a combined analysis of morphology and five molecular loci

Morphology, as well as the most congruent parameters for the sequence data and combined analysis, resolved Zygethobiini within Henicopini, and Biogeographic analysis of subtrees for Paralamyctes resolved the interrelationships of Gondwana.

Phylogenetic implications of gizzard morphology in scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda)

Comparison with the states in Scolopendridae favours a new homology assumption for parts of the foregut, which recognizes the sieve in blind scolopendedromorphs as homologous to the posterior part of the gizzard in Scollodontae that variably bears circlets of short lobes.

The systematics of the south-east Asian genus Fangensis Rambla (Opiliones : Cyphophthalmi : Stylocellidae)

The hitherto monotypic opilionid genus Fangensis Rambla is re-evaluated from new material collected in northern, western and southern Thailand and morphological and ribosomal data suggest monophyly of Fangensis, which is in turn divided into two clades, one composed of the three species from northern and western Thailand and the other represented by the species from southern Thailand.

A key and annotated list of the Scolopendra species of the Old World with a reappraisal of Arthrorhabdus (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae)

Several Scolopendra species are very similar and require further investigation; thus male S. canidens Newport, 1844 and S. cretica Attems, 1902 are indistinguishable.

Revision of the Centipede Genus Hemiscolopendra Kraepelin, 1903: Description of H. marginata (Say, 1821) and possible misidentifications as Scolopendra spp.; proposal of Akymnopellis , n. gen., and redescriptions of its South American components (Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae: Scolopendrinae)

The sole species, H. marginata, occurs from the southern Atlantic Coast of the United States to west Texas, in the east/west dimension, and, north/south, from southern Ohio-Illinois to Chiapas, Mexico, proving that they are conspecific.

Anatomy of Ectonocryptoides (Scolopocryptopidae: Ectonocryptopinae) and the phylogeny of blind Scolopendromorpha (Chilopoda)

Observations on Ectonocryptoides quadrimeropus and Newportia monticola suggest that new systematic characters for Scolopocryptopidae can be found in the specialised apical setae on the terminal antennomere.

Including secondary structure, fossils and molecular dating in the centipede tree of life.

Discovery of the centipede family Plutoniumidae (Chilopoda) in Asia: a new species of Theatops from China, and the taxonomic value of spiracle distributions in Scolopendromorpha

Theatops chuanensis n. sp. is proposed for a Chinese representative of Plutoniumidae, the first Asian record of this otherwise North American and southern European chilopod family. Its ultimate legs