Evolution of Reproductive Isolation in Allopatric and Sympatric Populations

@article{Soans1974EvolutionOR,
  title={Evolution of Reproductive Isolation in Allopatric and Sympatric Populations},
  author={A. Benedict Soans and David Pimentel and Julian Soans},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={1974},
  volume={108},
  pages={117 - 124}
}
Experiments were designed to measure the rate of evolution in sympatric (30% gene flow) and allopatric populations of houseflies under similar types of divergent selection (+ or - geotaxis). Under 5% selective pressure on both sympatric and allopatric populations, both diverged rapidly, with the allopatric populations evolving slightly faster during the 38 generations of the experiment. Incipient reproductive isolation occurred in both sympatric and allopatric population systems. In one test, a… 

Divergent Selection for Geotactic Response and Evolution of Reproductive Isolation in Sympatric and Allopatric Populations of Houseflies

This study does not support the hypothesis that incipient reproductive isolation occurs more rapidly under conditions of sympatry than allopatry, and no significant difference was found between sympatric and allopate populations.

Speciation via habitat specialization: the evolution of reproductive isolation as a correlated character

  • W. Rice
  • Biology
    Evolutionary Ecology
  • 2005
It is shown that disruptive selection on a continuous distribution of habitat preference can lead to the evolution of prezygotic reproductive isolation as a correlated character and the form of selection eliminates the major theoretical objections to the process of sympatric speciation.

Laboratory environments are not conducive for allopatric speciation

It is suggested that allopatric speciation experiments are more likely to yield conclusive results under divergent selection than under drift, and points to the benefits of large populations and many generations.

Effective population size may limit the power of laboratory experiments to demonstrate sympatric and parapatric speciation

This study demonstrates that the experimental evidence frequently used as an argument against sympatric and parapatric speciation models is not as strong as previously believed.

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ON SPECIATION: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED IN 40 YEARS?

The role of geographical separation in generating allopatry has been overemphasized in the past and its role in generating diminished gene flow in combination with strong, discontinuous, and multifarious divergent selection, has been largely unappreciated.

Reproductive isolation and disruptive selection as factors of genetic divergence between Pinus sylvestris L. populations

It has been found that root morphogenesis in the F1 progeny of pine from the bog population grown under uniform ecological conditions in the dry land area is characterized by elimination of the vertical phenotype, with the alternative lateral phenotype type being dominant in 7- to 22-year seedlings.

Selection for oviposition preference in Drosophila melanogaster

Populations of Drosophila melanogaster were subjected to selection for differing oviposition preference under allopatric and sympatric conditions, and selection was successful in rapidly generating an increased preference for sugar.

Pleiotropic effects of environment-sensitive genes affecting fitness in relation to postmating reproductive isolation

A verbal model is described in which gene flow is no longer seen as being first interrupted by a mere physical barrier and one is concerned with the environment-sensitivity of the mutations implicated in the process, and the other with their presumed pleiotropic action on a behavioural trait.

SYMPATRIC GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN THE LEAF‐MINING INSECT LIRIOMYZA BRASSICAE (DIPTERA: AGROMYZIDAE)

Many workers have suggested that sympatric divergence may proceed past the point of single locus polymorphism and even reach the level of complete speciation under appropriate conditions.

Investigating the relative influence of genetic drift and natural selection in shaping patterns of population structure in Delphinids (Delphinus delphis; Tursiops spp.)

Large mitogenomic sequences were used to investigate the worldwide phylogeography of several ecotypes/species within the genus Tursiops, with a recent biogeographical calibration point being used to calculate divergence times.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES

NATURAL SELECTION FOR REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION BETWEEN DROSOPHILA PSEUDOOBSCURA AND DROSOPHILA PERSIMILIS

One of the most imiportant problems in the study of speciation has been that of the origin of reproductive isolating mechanisms, for it is by the building up of intrinsic barriers which prevent gene

A Population Model of Sympatric Speciation

In this chapter, four genetic mechanisms, "habitat selection, pleiotropic genes, modifying genes, and assortative mating genes" which could result in sympatric speciation are presented.

Gene Flow and Divergence under Disruptive Selection

Isolation is not a prerequisite of divergence under divergent selection pressures, and two halves of a population exposed to selection in opposing directions can diverge despite gene flow of the same amount as is given by random mating.

Measurement of sexual isolation and selective mating.

The recent biological definitions of species have stressed the attainment of reproductive isolation between two populations as the critical step in speciation, so it is desirable to have some simple means of comparing the results from the different types of mating experiments.

SELECTION FOR SEXUAL ISOLATION WITHIN A SPECIES

The mechanism proposed by Dobzhansky (1937) is that when sufficient divergence between two species has arisen so that the hybrids are less well adapted for any available habitat than either parental type, there will be selection for sexual isolation.

The Probability of Isolation by Disruptive Selection

Conditions are discussed that may affect the probability of reproductive isolation developing in laboratory disruptive-selection experiments, and only two stocks were suitable for assessing the capacity of natural populations to respond to disruptive selection by producing isolation.

Effects of Immigration on the Evolution of Populations

The results of these experiments gave further evidence that the degree of isolation necessary for divergent evolution to occur has been overestimated and support the view that sympatric demes under divergent selection are a functional part of the speciation process.

Sexual Isolation Studies in the Species Complex Drosophila Virilis.

The results of SPENCER and PATTERSON, STONE and GRIFFEN suggest the existence of sexual isolation in the virilis complex similar to that found by DOBZHANSKY and KOLLER in D. athabasca, and the success of the mating was not measured directly, but by the offspring obtained, so that many factors besides sexual isolation were involved.

SEXUAL SELECTION, GEOTAXIS, AND CHROMOSOMAL POLYMORPHISM IN EXPERIMENTAL POPULATIONS OF DROSOPHILA PSEUDOOBSCURA

It is hoped that the diversifying (disruptive) selection, combined with migration between the experimental populations of Drosophila, may to some extent serve as a model of certain genetic processes which take place also in human populations having certain types of social structures.

ANALYSIS OF DATA ON SEXUAL ISOLATION

  • A. Bateman
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1949
It is possible, however, to separate the effects of sexual isolation from those of mating propensity by the use of the isolation indices from complementary matings, and it is proposed that the more active the female the more likely she is to be courted.