Evolution of Multilevel Social Systems in Nonhuman Primates and Humans

  title={Evolution of Multilevel Social Systems in Nonhuman Primates and Humans},
  author={Cyril C Grueter and Bernard Chapais and Dietmar Zinner},
  booktitle={International Journal of Primatology},
Multilevel (or modular) societies are a distinct type of primate social system whose key features are single-male–multifemale, core units nested within larger social bands. They are not equivalent to fission–fusion societies, with the latter referring to routine variability in associations, either on an individual or subunit level. The purpose of this review is to characterize and operationalize multilevel societies and to outline their putative evolutionary origins. Multilevel societies are… CONTINUE READING


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