Evolution of Male Parental Care and Female Multiple Mating: Game‐Theoretical and Two‐Locus Diploid Models

  title={Evolution of Male Parental Care and Female Multiple Mating: Game‐Theoretical and Two‐Locus Diploid Models},
  author={Joe Yuichiro Wakano and Yasuo Ihara},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  pages={E32 - E44}
Males gain a fitness benefit by mating with many females, whereas the number of progeny per female does not increase as a function of additional mates. Furthermore, males run the risk of investing in the offspring of other males if they provide parental care. Nevertheless, in various species, males provide parental care, and females mate with multiple males. We investigate a game‐theoretical model in which females gain a direct benefit by multiple mating from the paternal care they elicit for… 
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A Model for Evolution of Male Parental Care and Female Multiple Mating
  • Y. Ihara
  • Biology, Psychology
    The American Naturalist
  • 2002
A two‐locus genetic model for evolution of male parental care and female multiple mating is investigated in which females gain a direct benefit by multiple mating from the paternal care they thereby elicit for their offspring.
Female Mate Preference to Maximize Paternal Care. II. Female Competition Leads to Monogamy
A two‐step game model of female mate preference and paternal care is examined, with a particular focus on the case of two females and two males, and no “loop” should be included in the evolutionarily stable care graph for the general case of n females and m males.
Can Females Gain Extra Paternal Investment by Mating with Multiple Males? A Game Theoretic Approach
Two game theoretic models show that male care of multiple females’ offspring evolves when male help substantially increases offspring fitness, future mating opportunity is limited, and group size is small, and the argument that females can gain paternal investment by mating with several males in small social groups is supported.
Female Mate Preference to Maximize Paternal Care: A Two-Step Game
The results show that the preference of females for monogamy or polyandry depends on how the cost increases with paternal care.
The evolution of polyandry: multiple mating and female fitness in insects
A meta-analysis of 122 experimental studies addressing the direct effects of multiple mating on female fitness in insects shows that females gain directly from multiple matings in terms of increased lifetime offspring production, and supports the existence of an intermediate optimal female mating rate.
The `genetic benefits' of female multiple mating reconsidered.
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    Trends in ecology & evolution
  • 1998
Female Promiscuity and Male Reproductive Success in Social Birds and Mammals
The model suggests that when promiscuity is advantageous to the female, a male should not interfere with copulations by other males when male-male cooperation is important to the survival of the young, and when subordinate males are likely to leave the group if prevented from breeding.
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The results of a survey of all families whose species exhibit parental care are presented, suggesting that the effects of care-giving on the future reproduction of the male and the male's provability of genetic relatedness to his mate's offspring are major factors in the evolution and maintanance of male parental behavior.
Paternal care declines with increased opportunity for extra–pair matings in fairy martins
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    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
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