Evolution of Endemic Sideritis (Lamiaceae) in Macaronesia: Insights from a Chloroplast DNA Restriction Site Analysis

  title={Evolution of Endemic Sideritis (Lamiaceae) in Macaronesia: Insights from a Chloroplast DNA Restriction Site Analysis},
  author={Janet C. Barber and Javier Francisco Ortega and Arnoldo Santos‐Guerra and {\'A}guedo Marrero and Robert K. Jansen},
Abstract Sideritis L. subgenus Marrubiastrum (Lamiaceae) comprises 24 species of Macaronesian endemic perennials. The constituent taxa encompass a wide array of life forms that have exploited all ecological zones present in the Macaronesian archipelagos of Madeira and the Canary Islands. Though recently revised, an explicit phylogeny of the subgenus is still lacking. This group is especially intriguing because it exhibits the largest aneuploid series ever reported in oceanic island plants. The… 

Molecular phylogenetics of the Macaronesian‐endemic genus Bystropogon (Lamiaceae): palaeo‐islands, ecological shifts and interisland colonizations

A molecular phylogenetic study of Bystropogon L’Hèr. (Lamiaceae) is presented. We performed a cladistic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), of the nuclear

Molecular systematics of Descurainia (Brassicaceae) in the Canary Islands: Biogeographic and taxonomic implications

A molecular-based phylogeny of Canarian Descurainia was constructed using DNA sequences from nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and seven non-coding chloroplast regions and chloroplast data suggest that both intra-island adaptive radiation and inter-islands colonization have played a prominent role in the evolution of DesCurainia in the Canary Islands.

Evolution of Dystaenia takesimana (Apiaceae), endemic to Ullung Island, Korea

Dystaenia (Apiaceae) is shown to be monophyletic based on sequences from chloroplast trnL-F intron and spacer regions confirming previously published results using ITS sequences, and hypothesised that after a founder-effect reduction of genetic variation, anagenetic speciation may have occurred in D. takesimana.

Phylogeny of the Macaronesian endemic Crambe section Dendrocrambe (Brassicaceae) based on internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

Parsimony optimizations of ecological zones and island distribution suggest a colonization route from the low-altitude areas of the lowland scrub toward the high-elevation areas ofThe laurel and pine forests, which is likely the ancestral island for species endemic to the five westernmost islands of Gran Canaria, La Gomera, El Hierro, La Palma, and Tenerife.

Chloroplast DNA evidence for the roles of island colonization and extinction in Tolpis (Asteraceae: Lactuceae).

Tolpis may represent the first documented example of a woody plant group in Macaronesia that has recolonized the mainland in herbaceous form and the cpDNA phylogeny suggests that woodiness arose in the common ancestor of all extant Tolpis.

Peripatric speciation in an endemic Macaronesian plant after recent divergence from a widespread relative

A recent peripatric speciation of S. lowei is supported, a taxon that differs morphologically and genetically at the nDNA level from its closest relative, S. arguta, from the closest Macaronesian populations of that species.

Taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of Limonium sect. Pteroclados (Plumbaginaceae), based on morphological data

  • P. Karis
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • 2004
The two previously recognized subsections Nobiles and Odontolepidae were found to constitute two sister groups andLimonium mouretii (Pit.) Maire shares synapomorphies with both subsections and is positioned as sister group of Limonium sinuatum (L.) Mill.



A common origin for woody Sonchus and five related genera in the Macaronesian islands: molecular evidence for extensive radiation.

Increase of woodiness is concordant with other insular endemics and refutes the relictural nature of woody Sonchus in the Macaronesian islands and indicates that the alliance probably occurred in the Canary Islands during the late Miocene or early Pliocene.

Molecular evidence for a Mediterranean origin of the Macaronesian endemic genus Argyranthemum (Asteraceae).

A combined analysis of ITS sequences and cpDNA restriction sites indicates that Argyranthemum is sister to the other three genera of Chrysantheminae, and restriction site analyses of the entire chloroplast genome remain a valuable approach for studying recently derived island plants.

Origin of the Woody Macaronesian Sempervivoideae and the Phylogenetic Position of the East African Species of Aeonium

The extremely close genetic ties among the woody and branched (sub)shrubs indicate that, when compared to the other species of the genus, the wooded, African Aeonium species are not the sister group of the Macaronesian Sempervivoideae and substantiate the view that an ancestor of A. leucoblepharum recently migrated from the Canary Islands to East Africa and Arabia through long distance dispersal.

Chloroplast DNA evidence of colonization, adaptive radiation, and hybridization in the evolution of the Macaronesian flora.

The patterns of phylogenetic relationships in Argyranthemum indicate that interisland colonization between similar ecological zones is the main mechanism for establishing founder populations, combined with rapid radiation into distinct ecological zones and interspecific hybridization is the primary explanation for species diversification.

Island colonization and evolution of the insular woody habit in Echium L. (Boraginaceae).

  • U. BöhleH. HilgerW. Martin
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1996
It is argued that the origin of insular woodiness involved response to counter-selection of inbreeding depression in founding island colonies, and was furthermore accompanied by intense speciation, which brought forth remarkable diversity of forms among contemporary island endemics.

Evolution of the Genus Dendroseris (Asteraceae: Lactuceae) on the Juan Fernandez Islands: Evidence from Chloroplast and Ribosomal DNA

The molecular data indicate that subgenera Dendroseris and Phoenicoseris are holophyletic but the results are inconclusive with regard to the holophyly of subg.

Molecular evidence for multiple origins of woodiness and a new world biogeographic connection of the Macaronesian island endemic Pericallis (Asteraceae: senecioneae).

A phylogeny based on sequences of the internal-transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is used to trace the evolution of woodiness in Pericallis, a genus endemic to the Macaronesian archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, and Canaries, showing that woodiness originated independently at least twice in these islands.

The evolution of growth‐forms in the Macaronesian genus Aeonium (Crassulaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA RFLPs and morphology

Although Aeonium is generally regarded as an outstanding example of adaptive radiation, this mode of speciation seems to have been of minor significance in the evolution of the genus, because each growth‐form apparently evolved only once.


The purpose of this paper is to present a unique example in Chaenactis (Compositae) in which the cytogenetical evidence indicates beyond reasonable doubt that an extant species of relatively mesic habitats, C. glabriuscula DC.


The silversword alliance of the Hawaiian Islands comprises one of the most spectacular arrays of life forms known in a relatively small, clearly natural plant group and shows a truly remarkable spectrum of variation from somewhat herbaceous, low-growing forms through woody shrubs to trees.