Evolution and origins of the Mazatec hallucinogenic sage, Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae): a molecular phylogenetic approach

  title={Evolution and origins of the Mazatec hallucinogenic sage, Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae): a molecular phylogenetic approach},
  author={Aaron A. Jenks and Jay B. Walker and Seung‐Chul Kim},
  journal={Journal of Plant Research},
Salvia divinorum Epl. & Játiva-M. (Lamiaceae) is a potent hallucinogenic plant that is classified within Salvia subgenus Calosphace, section Dusenostachys, and hypothesized to be an interspecific hybrid. It is of ethnobotanical significance due to its employment in traditional healing ceremonies by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico, and due to its unique pharmacology—a highly selective, non-nitrogenous, κ-opioid receptor agonist. In order to test its phylogenetic position and putative hybridity… 
A Review on the Ethnopharmacology and Phytochemistry of the Neotropical Sages (Salvia Subgenus Calosphace; Lamiaceae) Emphasizing Mexican Species
The Neotropical sages are a promising resource in the production of herbal medication, but studies that corroborate the properties that have been attributed to them in traditional medicine are scarce and research of these metabolites guided by the phylogenies is recommended.
The Use of Salvia divinorum from a Mazatec Perspective
This chapter will try to clarify the best ways to use Salvia divinorum for medicinal, psychotherapeutic, and inner exploration purposes.
DNA identification of Salvia divinorum samples.
Time to split Salvia s.l. (Lamiaceae) - New insights from Old World Salvia phylogeny.
Phylogeny of the Neotropical sages (Salvia subg. Calosphace; Lamiaceae) and insights into pollinator and area shifts
The phylogenetic relationships of subgenus Calosphace are reassessed, including a broader taxon sampling, with a special focus on representing previously unsampled sections, and using an additional plastid marker (trnL–trnF region).
Phylogeny of New World Salvia subgenus Calosphace (Lamiaceae) based on cpDNA (psbA-trnH) and nrDNA (ITS) sequence data
Mexico is supported as the geographic origin of Calosphace, and no more than seven dispersal events to South America are required to account for current disjunct distributions.
Salvia reginae and S. spellenbergii (Lamiaceae), two new species from Chihuahua, Mexico
During botanical explorations in the highlands of NW Mexico, two new Salvia L. reginae and S. spellenbergii (Lamiaceae) species were discovered in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, described and illustrated.
Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Africa.
The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent and many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation are reflected in this comparatively small group.


Systematics and Ethnobotany of Salvia Subgenus Calosphace and Origins of the Hallucinogenic Sage, Salvia divinorum
Phylogenetic analysis of the combined data set established the monophyly of nine sections and four major lineages within Salvia subgenus Calosphace, the largest of 5 subgenera with some 500 species and strongly supported as monophyletic.
Ethnopharmacognosy and human pharmacology of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A
After a thorough review of the limited ethnographic data on shamanic use of the entheogenic mint « Salvia divinorum » by the Mazatec Indians of the Sierra Madre Oriental of the Mexican state of
Salvia divinorum: Clinical and Research Potential
Salvia divinorum is a perennial Mexican herb from the labiate (mint) family (Epling & Jativa, 1962) that has a history of use chiefly for the initiation and facilitation of shamanic practice among
Salvinorin A: A potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous κ opioid selective agonist
  • B. Roth, K. Baner, R. Rothman
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
Salvinorin A is the first naturally occurring nonnitrogenous opioid-receptor subtype-selective agonist for κ opioid receptors and may represent novel psychotherapeutic compounds for diseases manifested by perceptual distortions (e.g., schizophrenia, dementia, and bipolar disorders).
Salvinorin A: from natural product to human therapeutics.
The hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum (i.e., "magic mint") is a member of the Sage family that has been used for divination and shamanism by the Mazatecs. Over the past decade or so, S. divinorum
Salvia (Lamiaceae) is not monophyletic: implications for the systematics, radiation, and ecological specializations of Salvia and tribe Mentheae.
In a preliminary investigation of infrageneric relationships within Salvia, the monophyly of the genus and its relationship to other members of the tribe Mentheae were investigated using the chloroplast DNA regions rbcL and trnL-F.
Studies ofSalvia divinorum (Lamiaceae), an Hallucinogenic mint from the Sierra Mazateca in Oaxaca, Central Mexico
Experiments with material collected at different Oaxacan sites confirmed that the mint has white (rather than blue) flowers with a purple calyx and that flowering is induced by short day length.
Staminal evolution in the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae): molecular phylogenetic evidence for multiple origins of the staminal lever.
It is suggested that Salvia is clearly polyphyletic, with five other genera intercalated within it, and staminal evolution has proceeded in different ways in each of the three lineages of Salvia but has resulted in remarkably similarStaminal morphologies.
Chromosomal studies in species of Salvia (Lamiaceae) from Argentina
Some systematic and evolutionary aspects of the genus are discussed in the light of the cytogenetic data, the relationships between geographical distribution and chromosome numbers in relation to levels of ploidy and basic chromosome numbers, and make comparisons with some of the different taxonomic sections.
Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A: new pharmacologic findings.
  • D. Siebert
  • Medicine
    Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • 1994