Evolution and development of the synarcual in early vertebrates

@article{Johanson2013EvolutionAD,
  title={Evolution and development of the synarcual in early vertebrates},
  author={Zerina Johanson and Kate Trinajstic and Robert K. Carr and Alexander Ritchie},
  journal={Zoomorphology},
  year={2013},
  volume={132},
  pages={95-110}
}
The synarcual is a structure incorporating the anterior vertebrae of the axial skeleton and occurs in vertebrate taxa such as the fossil group Placodermi and the Chondrichthyes (Holocephali, Batoidea). Although the synarcual varies morphologically in these groups, it represents the first indication, phylogenetically, of a differentiation of the vertebral column into separate regions. Among the placoderms, the synarcual of Cowralepismclachlani Ritchie, 2005 (Arthrodira) shows substantial changes… 

Phenotypic regionalization of the vertebral column in the thorny skate Amblyraja radiata: Stability and variation

Micro‐computed tomography scans of vertebral columns of a growth series of thorny skates Amblyraja radiata are used to provide the first fine‐scale morphological description of vertebra units in a batoids species and axial regionalization is investigated using a replicable clustering analysis on presence/absence of vertebrate elements to decipher the regionalization of the vertebral column of A. radiata.

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