Evolution and classification of the CRISPR–Cas systems

@article{Makarova2011EvolutionAC,
  title={Evolution and classification of the CRISPR–Cas systems},
  author={Kira S. Makarova and Daniel H. Haft and Rodolphe Barrangou and Stan J. J. Brouns and Emmanuelle Charpentier and Philippe Horvath and Sylvain Moineau and Francisco J. M. Mojica and Yuri I. Wolf and Alexander F. Yakunin and John van der Oost and Eugene V. Koonin},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
  year={2011},
  volume={9},
  pages={467-477}
}
The CRISPR–Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These defence systems are encoded by operons that have an extraordinarily diverse architecture and a high rate of evolution for both the cas genes and the unique spacer content. Here, we provide an updated analysis of the evolutionary relationships between CRISPR–Cas systems and Cas proteins. Three major types… Expand
Annotation and Classification of CRISPR-Cas Systems.
TLDR
A multipronged approach has been developed that combines phylogenetic analysis of the conserved Cas proteins with comparison of gene repertoires and arrangements in CRISPR-Cas loci, leading to the current classification of CRISpr-Cas systems into three distinct types and ten subtypes for each of which signature genes have been identified. Expand
The basic building blocks and evolution of CRISPR-CAS systems.
TLDR
A group of archaeal cas1 gene homologues that are not associated with CRISPR-Cas loci are described for the first time and are predicted to be involved in functions other than adaptive immunity. Expand
Classification and evolution of type II CRISPR-Cas systems
TLDR
Phylogenomic analysis suggests that at least three cas genes, cas1, cas2 and cas4, and theCRISPR repeats of the type II-B system were acquired via recombination with a type I CRISPR-Cas locus, suggesting that type II CRISpr-Cas evolved via recombinations of mobile nuclease genes with type I loci. Expand
Evolution and Classification of CRISPR-Cas Systems and Cas Protein Families
TLDR
Comparative analysis of the sequences and structures of Cas proteins structures shed light on the deep relationships between Type I and Type III systems and allowed us to propose a simple evolutionary scenario for the origin of CRISPR-Cas system. Expand
SURVEY AND SUMMARY Classification and evolution of type II CRISPR-Cas systems
TLDR
Phylogenomic analysis suggests that at least three cas genes, cas1, cas2 and cas4, and theCRISPR repeats of the type II-B system were acquired via recombination with a type I CRISPR-Cas locus, suggesting that type II CRISpr-Cas evolved via recombinations of mobile nuclease genes with type I loci. Expand
Mobile Genetic Elements and Evolution of CRISPR-Cas Systems: All the Way There and Back
TLDR
The two-sided evolutionary connection between CRISPR-Cas and MGE fits the “guns for hire” paradigm whereby homologous enzymatic machineries are shuttled between MGE and defense systems and are used alternately as means of offense or defense. Expand
An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR–Cas systems
TLDR
An approach combining the analysis of signature protein families and features of the architecture of cas loci that unambiguously partitions most CRISPR–cas loci into distinct classes, types and subtypes is presented. Expand
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TLDR
The tight association of the CRISPR-Cas immunity systems with predicted toxins that, upon activation, would induce dormancy or cell death suggests that adaptive immunity and dormancy/suicide response are functionally coupled. Expand
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TLDR
Evidence is presented that large subunits contained in most of the CRISPR-Cas systems could be homologous to Cas10 proteins which contain a polymerase-like Palm domain and are predicted to be enzymatically active in Type III CRISpr-cas systems but inactivated in Type I systems. Expand
CRISPRmap: an automated classification of repeat conservation in prokaryotic adaptive immune systems
TLDR
The largest data set of CRISPRs to date is compiled, comprehensive, independent clustering analyses are performed and a novel set of 40 conserved sequence families and 33 potential structure motifs for Cas-endoribonucleases with some distinct conservation patterns are identified. Expand
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