Evolution and biogeography of the woody Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae): arctic origins, herbaceous ancestry and bird dispersal.

@article{Ballard2000EvolutionAB,
  title={Evolution and biogeography of the woody Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae): arctic origins, herbaceous ancestry and bird dispersal.},
  author={Harvey E. Ballard and Kenneth J. Sytsma},
  journal={Evolution; international journal of organic evolution},
  year={2000},
  volume={54 5},
  pages={
          1521-32
        }
}
Specialists studying the genus Viola have consistently allied the Hawaiian violets comprising section Nosphinium--most of which are subshrubs or treelets--with putatively primitive subshrubs in certain South American violet groups. Hawaiian violets also possess inflorescences, a floral disposition otherwise found only in other genera of the Violaceae, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a very ancient origin for the Hawaiian species. A survey of phylogenetic relationships among infrageneric… CONTINUE READING
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