The informational significance of human perceptive and semantic evoked potentials to an abrupt change in non-verbal or verbal stimuli, respectively, is discussed. The amplitudes of perceptive and semantic evoked potentials were shown to be positively correlated with subjective estimates of differences between these stimuli. Multidimensional scaling of amplitude matrices and subjective estimates of differences after pair-wise replacement of the stimuli showed that colors and color names were encoded by excitation vectors of equal lengths in four-dimensional spherical space of colors. Color differences were shown to be equal to absolute values of their excitation vectors, whereas semantic differences in color names turned to be determined by the absolute values of vector differences between color memory traces represented as long-term memory excitation vectors. The data were summarized in the framework of cognitive spherical model.