Assessment of the cerebral cortex during motor task behaviours in adults: A systematic review of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies
Blood oxygenation level dependent contrast functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI) has been used to define the functional cortices of the brain in preoperative planning for tumor removal. However, some studies have demonstrated false-negative activations in such patients. We compared the evoked-cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) changes measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and activation mapping of BOLD-fMRI in 12 patients with brain tumors who had no paresis of the upper extremities. On the nonlesion side, NIRS demonstrated a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) with increases in oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin (Total-Hb) during a contralateral hand grasping task in the primary sensorimotor cortex (PSMC) of all patients. On the lesion side, NIRS revealed a decrease in Deoxy-Hb in five patients (Deoxy-decrease group), and an increase in Deoxy-Hb in seven patients (Deoxy-increase group); the Oxy-Hb and Total-Hb were increased during activation in both groups, indicating the occurrence of rCBF increases in response to neuronal activation. BOLD-fMRI demonstrated clear activation areas in the PSMC on the nonlesion side of all patients and on the lesion side of the Deoxy-decrease group. However, in the Deoxy-increase group, BOLD-fMRI revealed only a small activation area or no activation on the lesion side. Intraoperative brain mapping identified the PSMC on the lesion side that was not demonstrated by BOLD-fMRI. The false-negative activations might have been caused by the atypical evoked-CBO changes (i.e. increases in Deoxy-Hb) and the software employed to calculate the activation maps, which does not regard an increase of Deoxy-Hb (i.e., a decrease in BOLD-fMRI signal) as neuronal activation.