Evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) generates little-to-no reliable neurophysiologic effect beyond MEP amplitude modulation in healthy human subjects: A systematic review

@article{Horvath2015EvidenceTT,
  title={Evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) generates little-to-no reliable neurophysiologic effect beyond MEP amplitude modulation in healthy human subjects: A systematic review},
  author={Jared C. Horvath and Jason D. Forte and Olivia L. Carter},
  journal={Neuropsychologia},
  year={2015},
  volume={66},
  pages={213-236}
}

Assessment of the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on neurophysiologic, cognitive, and behavioral outcome measures

Background: Over the last 15-years, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a relatively novel form of neuromodulation, has seen a surge of popularity in both clinical and academic settings.

Effects of a common transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol on motor evoked potentials found to be highly variable within individuals over 9 testing sessions

TLDR
The effects of tDCS on MEP amplitudes to be highly variable at the individual level is found and future studies should consider utilizing a more strict experimental protocol to potentially account for intra-individual response variations.

The neurobiological mechanisms of transcranial direct current stimulation : insights from human neuroimaging and psychophysics

TLDR
These studies provided varying degrees of support for the neurobiological mechanisms proposed in the existing literature, most likely reflecting the influence of distinctions in stimulation protocols and the presence of individual difference factors thought to modify responses to stimulation.

The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on short-interval intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

TLDR
It can be concluded that increases and decreases in CSE after tDCS application are associated with corresponding changes in intracortical activities, and tDCS can be clinically useful to modulate intracortsical circuits.
...

References

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Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on behaviour and electrophysiology of language production

A pilot study on effects of 4×1 High-Definition tDCS on motor cortex excitability

TLDR
The first evidence of a change in cortical excitability after HD-tDCS of the motor cortex is provided, using TMS motor evoked potential (MEP) as the measure of excitability.

Different Current Intensities of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Do Not Differentially Modulate Motor Cortex Plasticity

TLDR
The results suggest that the aftereffect of anodal tDCS on facilitating cortical excitability is due to the modulation of synaptic mechanisms associated with long-term potentiation and is not influenced by different tDCS intensities.

Transcranial direct current stimulation: five important issues we aren't discussing (but probably should be)

TLDR
Five topics are considered, including the extensive between- and within-group differences found within the tDCS literature and the need to properly examine stimulatory response at the individual level, and the lack of data concerning tDCS response reliability over time.

Transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex affects cortical drive to human musculature as assessed by intermuscular coherence

TLDR
Testing the hypothesis that intermuscular coherence analysis was able to detect cortical excitability changes in healthy subjects following transcranial direct current stimulation found that anodal tDCS caused an increase in motor evoked potential (MEP) size that was paralleled by an increases in β‐band intermuscles coherence, which suggest that at least some of the action of tDCS is on cortical networks.
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