Evidence that the antioxidant flavonoids in tea and cocoa are beneficial for cardiovascular health

  title={Evidence that the antioxidant flavonoids in tea and cocoa are beneficial for cardiovascular health},
  author={Penny M. Kris-Etherton and Carl L Keen},
  journal={Current Opinion in Lipidology},
&NA; Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association of tea consumption with cardiovascular disease. The antioxidant effects of flavonoids in tea (including preventing oxidative damage to LDL) are among the potential mechanisms that could underlie the protective effects. Other possible mechanisms include attenuating the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis, reducing thrombosis, promoting normal endothelial function, and blocking expression of cellular adhesion molecules. Cocoa and… 

Tea, flavonoids, and nitric oxide-mediated vascular reactivity.

Because tea is a popular beverage worldwide, and several studies have shown that it is protective against CVD, further studies are needed to determine the role of tea in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention.

Review: Health Effects of Cocoa Flavonoids

Flavonoids are phenolic substances widely found in fruits and vegetables. Many epidemiological studies associate the ingestion of flavonoids with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and certain

Cocoa antioxidants and cardiovascular health 1 – 4

This review discusses the bioactivity of flavanols in the context of cardiovascular health, with respect to their bioavailability, their antioxidant properties, and their vascular effects.

Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease.

Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks, including increased risk of weight gain.

Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health.

This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate, and recommends by health professionals to encourage individuals to consume a wide range of phytochemical-rich foods, which can include dark chocolate in moderate amounts.

Cocoa antioxidants and cardiovascular health.

The bioactivity of flavanols in the context of cardiovascular health is discussed, with respect to their bioavailability, their antioxidant properties, and their vascular effects.

Cocoa Consumption, Cocoa Flavonoids, and Effects on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: An Evidence-Based Review

There is rather strong evidence supporting and demonstrating that cocoa consumption improves several important cardiovascular risk factors and likely reduces the risk of CVD, although more research is needed to further examine etiological mechanisms and demonstrate efficacy on hard clinical CVD endpoints in large-scale randomized trials.

Evidence for a protective effect of polyphenols-containing foods on cardiovascular health: an update for clinicians

Future long-term well-designed investigations with polyphenols-rich foods but also with isolated phenolic compounds would provide valuable information to establish public health recommendations onpolyphenols, taking into account both the nature of the compounds and the optimal dose, for cardiovascular health protection.

The role of tea and tea flavonoids in cardiovascular health.

Overall, tea represents a promising tool for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders and underlying mechanisms for the beneficial effects of tea include vasculoprotective, antioxidative, antithrombogenic, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering properties of tea flavonoids.

Effects of antioxidant-rich foods on vascular reactivity: Review of the clinical evidence

The evidence presented herein suggests that dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables, red grapes and red wine, tea, chocolate, and olive oil may improve vascular reactivity, in part, by attenuating the adverse effects of oxidation on endothelial function.



Consumption of black tea elicits an increase in plasma antioxidant potential in humans

  • S. Langley-Evans
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    International journal of food sciences and nutrition
  • 2000
Heavy consumption of black tea appears to elevate circulating antioxidant potentials in vivo, an effect which appears to be totally negated by the drinking of tea with milk.

Effects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humans.

Cocoa powder and dark chocolate may favorably affect cardiovascular disease risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility, increasing serum total antioxidant capacity and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and not adversely affecting prostaglandins.

A dose-response effect from chocolate consumption on plasma epicatechin and oxidative damage.

The theories that in healthy adults, a positive relationship exists between procyanidin consumption and plasma procyAnidin concentration and the rise in plasma epicatechin contributes to the ability of plasma to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation are supported.

Relation between Intake of Flavonoids and Risk for Coronary Heart Disease in Male Health Professionals

The association between intake of flavonols and flavones and coronary heart disease in 34 789 men who were enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and were followed prospectively for 6 years was investigated.

Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.

Of the foods that contributed the most to flavonoids intake in this cohort, only broccoli was strongly associated with reduced risk of CHD death, and the data of this study suggest that flavonoid intake may reduce risk of death from CHD in postmenopausal women.

Catechin intake might explain the inverse relation between tea consumption and ischemic heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study.

Catechins, whether from tea or other sources, may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease mortality but not of stroke.

Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study.

The habitual intake of flavonoids and their major source (tea) may protect against stroke, after adjustment for potential confounders, including antioxidant vitamins.

Antioxidant polyphenols in tea, cocoa, and wine.

Intake of Flavonoids, Carotenoids, Vitamins C and E, and Risk of Stroke in Male Smokers

Dietary intake of &bgr;-carotene was inversely associated with the risk for cerebral infarction and no association was detected between other dietary antioxidants and risk for stroke.