Evidence that insect herbivores are deterred by ant pheromones.

  title={Evidence that insect herbivores are deterred by ant pheromones.},
  author={Joachim Offenberg and Mogens Gissel Nielsen and Donald J. Macintosh and Sopon Havanon and Sanit Aksornkoae},
  journal={Proceedings. Biological sciences},
  volume={271 Suppl 6},
It is well documented that ants can protect plants against insect herbivores, but the underlying mechanisms remain almost undocumented. We propose and test the pheromone avoidance hypothesis--an indirect mechanism where insect herbivores are repelled not only by ants but also by ant pheromones. Herbivores subjected to ant predation will experience a selective advantage if they evolve mechanisms enabling them to avoid feeding within ant territories. Such a mechanism could be based on the ability… CONTINUE READING
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