Evidence that humans evolved from a knuckle-walking ancestor

@article{Richmond2000EvidenceTH,
  title={Evidence that humans evolved from a knuckle-walking ancestor},
  author={Brian G. Richmond and David S. Strait},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2000},
  volume={404},
  pages={382-385}
}
Bipedalism has traditionally been regarded as the fundamental adaptation that sets hominids apart from other primates. Fossil evidence demonstrates that by 4.1 million years ago, and perhaps earlier, hominids exhibited adaptations to bipedal walking. At present, however, the fossil record offers little information about the origin of bipedalism, and despite nearly a century of research on existing fossils and comparative anatomy, there is still no consensus concerning the mode of locomotion… 

Independent evolution of knuckle-walking in African apes shows that humans did not evolve from a knuckle-walking ancestor

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Knuckle-Walking and the Origin of Human Bipedalism

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5 The Origins of Bipedal Locomotion

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Origin of human bipedalism: The knuckle-walking hypothesis revisited.

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The evidence is set out for the existence of a much earlier origin for bipedalism in a Miocene primate ancestor that was still predominantly tree-dwelling, and the notion that the common ancestor of great apes and humans was a knuckle-walking terrestrial species, as are gorillas and chimpanzees today is rejected.

Fossils, feet and the evolution of human bipedal locomotion

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Bipedalism is a highly specialized and unusual form of primate locomotion that is found today only in modern humans. The majority of extinct taxa within the Hominini were bipedal, but the degree to

The African ape-like foot of Ardipithecus ramidus and its implications for the origin of bipedalism

The ancestral condition from which humans evolved is critical for understanding the adaptive origin of bipedal locomotion. The 4.4 million-year-old hominin partial skeleton attributed to Ardipithecus

Why Do Knuckle‐Walking African Apes Knuckle‐Walk?

It is argued that knuckle‐walking was adopted by African apes as a means of ameliorating the consequences of repetitive impact loadings on the soft and hard tissues of the forelimb by employing isometric and/or eccentric contraction of antebrachial musculature during terrestrial locomotion.
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