Evidence of humans in North America during the Last Glacial Maximum

  title={Evidence of humans in North America during the Last Glacial Maximum},
  author={Matthew R. Bennett and David Bustos and Jeffrey S. Pigati and Kathleen B. Springer and Thomas M. Urban and Vance T. Holliday and Sally C. Reynolds and Marcin Budka and Jeffrey S. Honke and Adam M. Hudson and Brendan Fenerty and Claire Spatz Connelly and Patrick J. Martinez and Vincent L. Santucci and Daniel Odess},
  pages={1528 - 1531}
Description Early footsteps in the Americas Despite a plethora of archaeological research over the past century, the timing of human migration into the Americas is still far from resolved. In a study of exposed outcrops of Lake Otero in White Sands National Park in New Mexico, Bennett et al. reveal numerous human footprints dating to about 23,000 to 21,000 years ago. These finds indicate the presence of humans in North America for approximately two millennia during the Last Glacial Maximum… 

Response to Comment on “Evidence of humans in North America during the Last Glacial Maximum”

It is concluded that the footprints date to between ~23,000 and 21,000 years ago and the ages were derived from seeds of the aquatic plant Ruppia cirrhosa, which may suffer from hard-water effects, making them too old, potentially by thousands of years.

A critical assessment of claims that human footprints in the Lake Otero basin, New Mexico date to the Last Glacial Maximum

The ancient human footprints in valley-bottom sediments in Tularosa Valley, New Mexico, are fascinating and potentially important because they suggest interactions between Pleistocene megafauna as

Human Occupation of the North American Colorado Plateau ∼37,000 Years Ago

Calibrating human population dispersals across Earth’s surface is fundamental to assessing rates and timing of anthropogenic impacts and distinguishing ecological phenomena influenced by humans from

Late date of human arrival to North America: Continental scale differences in stratigraphic integrity of pre-13,000 BP archaeological sites

By 13,000 BP human populations were present across North America, but the exact date of arrival to the continent, especially areas south of the continental ice sheets, remains unclear. Here we

Reply to “Evidence for Humans at White Sands National Park during the Last Glacial Maximum Could Actually be for Clovis People ∼13,000 Years Ago” by C. Vance Haynes, Jr.

ABSTRACT Bennett et al. (2021, Science 373, 1528–1531) reported that ancient human footprints discovered in White Sands National Park, New Mexico date to between ∼23,000 and 21,000 years ago. Haynes

Late quaternary biotic homogenization of North American mammalian faunas

Biotic homogenization—increasing similarity of species composition among ecological communities—has been linked to anthropogenic processes operating over the last century. Fossil evidence, however,


ABSTRACT The study of the peopling of the Americas has been transformed in the past decade by astonishing progress in paleogenomic research. Ancient genomes now show that Native American ancestors

Comment on “Evidence of humans in North America during the Last Glacial Maximum”

Critical assessment suggests that their radiocarbon chronology may be inaccurate, and independent verification of the ages of the footprint horizons is imperative and is possible through other means.

Cordilleran Ice Sheet Stability During the Last Deglaciation

We report 20 10Be exposure ages from glacial erratics and bedrock on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, which add to existing chronologies of Cordilleran Ice Sheet retreat along ∼600 km of

A genomic perspective on South American human history.

The present review aims to create a comprehensive picture of the main events involved in the formation of contemporary South American indigenous populations and the dynamics responsible for shaping their genetic diversity by integrating current genetic data with evidence from archeology, linguistics and other disciplines.



The timing and effect of the earliest human arrivals in North America

A Bayesian age model suggests that human dispersal to the Americas probably began before the Last Glacial Maximum, overlapping with the last dates of appearance for several faunal genera and was a key factor in the extinction of large terrestrial mammals.

Overkill, glacial history, and the extinction of North America’s Ice Age megafauna

  • D. J. Meltzer
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2020
Resolving the cause of large mammal extinctions requires greater knowledge of individual species’ histories and their adaptive tolerances, a fuller understanding of how past climatic and ecological changes impacted those animals and their biotic communities, and what changes occurred at the Pleistocene−Holocene boundary that might have led to those genera going extinct at that time.

Deglaciation of the Pacific coastal corridor directly preceded the human colonization of the Americas

It is concluded that CIS retreat ensured that an open and ecologically viable pathway through southeastern Alaska was available after 17 ka ago, which may have been traversed by early humans as they colonized the Americas.

Evidence for late Pleistocene hydrologic and climatic change from Lake Otero, Tularosa Basin, south-central New Mexico

Stratigraphic relations, lithofacies, and radiocarbon chronology of deposits that accumulated in and around the margins of late Pleistocene Lake Otero in south-central New Mexico provide evidence for

Hominin Footprints from Early Pleistocene Deposits at Happisburgh, UK

Investigations at Happisburgh, UK, have revealed the oldest known hominin footprint surface outside Africa at between ca. 1 million and 0.78 million years ago. The site has long been recognised for

Population reconstructions for humans and megafauna suggest mixed causes for North American Pleistocene extinctions

Analysis of human and megafaunal population dynamics in Pleistocene North America and variation among taxa and region in whether hunting, climate or both best predict extinction is found is found.

The Last Glacial Maximum

The responses of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres differed significantly, which reveals how the evolution of specific ice sheets affected sea level and provides insight into how insolation controlled the deglaciation.

Current evidence allows multiple models for the peopling of the Americas

Current genetic, archeological, and paleoecological evidence indicates that ancestral Native American population expansion occurred after 16,000 years ago, consistent with the archeological record, and largely consistent with either an inland (ice-free corridor) or Pacific coastal routes, but neither can be rejected at present.

Pioneers from Northern Japan in Idaho 16,000 Years Ago? A Critical Evaluation of the Evidence from Cooper’s Ferry

ABSTRACT Davis et al. (2019) recently presented the results of excavations at the Cooper’s Ferry site, located beside the Salmon River in Idaho. They claim that initial occupation of this site dates

Contesting early archaeology in California

It is argued that the CM record is more parsimoniously explained as the result of common geological and taphonomic processes, and does not indicate prehistoric hominin involvement, and further investigations may yet identify unambiguous evidence of hominins in California around 130,000 years ago.