Evidence of electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam

@article{Abe2013EvidenceOE,
  title={Evidence of electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam},
  author={T. Abe and Nicolas Abgrall and Hiroaki Aihara and T. Akiri and Justin Albert and C. Andreopoulos and Shigeki Aoki and Akitaka Ariga and Tomoko Ariga and Shamil Assylbekov and Dario Autiero and Mauricio Barbi and Gary John Barker and Giles David Barr and Matthew Bass and Marcela Batkiewicz and F. Bay and S. W. Bentham and Vincenzo Berardi and B. E. Berger and Sophie Berkman and I. A. Bertram and Dmitriy Beznosko and Sampa Bhadra and F. d. M. Blaszczyk and Alain Blondel and Casey Bojechko and S. B. Boyd and D. Brailsford and Alessandro Bravar and Christopher Bronner and D. G. Brook-Roberge and Norman Buchanan and Richard G. Calland and J. Caravaca Rodŕıguez and Susan Cartwright and R. Castillo and M. G. Catanesi and Anselmo Cervera and Daniel Cherdack and Georgios Christodoulou and Alex Clifton and J. P. Coleman and Stephen James Coleman and G. Collazuol and Kevin Thomas Connolly and L. Cremonesi and Alessandro Curioni and Anna Maria Dabrowska and Istv{\'a}n Dank{\'o} and R. Das and S. Davis and Melanie Day and Jo{\~a}o Pedro Athayde Marcondes de Andr{\'e} and Patrick de Perio and Gianfranca de Rosa and T. Dealtry and Steve Dennis and Chris Densham and F. di Lodovico and Silvestro di Luise and J. E. Y. Dobson and O. Drapier and T. Duboyski and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Dufour and Jacques Dumarchez and Steven A. Dytman and Michał Dziewiecki and M. Dziomba and Sandrine Emery and Antonio Ereditato and L. Escudero and Alexander Finch and E. D. Frank and Megan Friend and Yoshiaki Fujii and Yoshiyuki Fukuda and A. P. Furmanski and Vyacheslav Galymov and Andr{\'e}s Gaud{\'i}n and S. G. Giffin and Claudio Giganti and Karin Gilje and Tomasz Golan and J.-J. Gomez-Cadenas and Michel Gonin and Nick Grant and D. Gudin and David Hadley and A. Haesler and Martin David Haigh and Pip Hamilton and D. Hansen and Takanori Hara and Mark Patrick Hartz and Takehisa Hasegawa and Nicholas C. Hastings and Yoshinari Hayato and Christopher Hearty and Richard Lloyd Helmer and M. Hierholzer and Joshua Hignight and A. Hillairet and Alexander Himmel and Takahiro Hiraki and Seiko Hirota and Jacek Holeczek and S. Horikawa and K. Huang and Atsuko Kondo Ichikawa and Keiko Ieki and M. Ieva and Motoyasu Ikeda and James Imber and Jonathan Insler and T. J. Irvine and Taku Ishida and Takehiko Ishii and S. J. Ives and Kiyoshi Iyogi and Alexander Izmaylov and A. Jacob and Blair Jamieson and R. A. Johnson and Jay Hyun Jo and Patrik Jonsson and Kyung Kwang Joo and Chang Kee Jung and Asher Kaboth and Hiroshi Kaji and Takaaki Kajita and Hidekazu Kakuno and Jun Kameda and Yasunori Kanazawa and Douglas L. Karlen and I. I. Karpikov and Edward Kearns and Marat Khabibullin and Fahmida Khanam and Alexey N. Khotjantsev and Danuta Kiełczewska and Tatsuya Kikawa and A. Kilinski and J. Y. Kim and J. Y. Kim and S. B. Kim and Brian Kirby and John B. Kisiel and Peter Kitching and Takashi Kobayashi and G. Kogan and Anezka Kolaceke and Akira Konaka and Laura Lee Kormos and Alexander Korzenev and Kimiaki Koseki and Yusuke Koshio and Katarzyna Kowalik and Igor E. Kreslo and William R. Kropp and Hiroshi Kubo and Yury G. Kudenko and S. Kumaratunga and Robert Kurjata and Thomas Kutter and Justyna Lagoda and Karim Laihem and Andrew Laing and Marco Laveder and M. Lawe and Manuel Lazos and K. P. Lee and Caio Licciardi and I. T. Lim and Thomas Lindner and C. J. Lister and R. Phillip Litchfield and A. Longhin and G. D́ıaz L{\'o}pez and Lucio Ludovici and M. S. Yuen Macaire and Lorenzo Magaletti and Kendall Brianna McConnel Mahn and Magdalena Malek and Steven L. Manly and A. Marchionni and Alysia Marino and Jacques Marteau and J. F. Martin and Tomoyuki Maruyama and Jan Marzec and Patrick Masliah and E. L. Mathie and Viktor Matveev and K. Mavrokoridis and Eddy Mazzucato and Neil McCauley and K. S. Mcfarland and C. Mcgrew and T. McLachlan and Marcello Messina and C. J. Metelko and Mauro Mezzetto and P. Mijakowski and C. A. Miller and Akihiro Minamino and O. V. Mineev and Shun'ichi Mine and Andrew D Missert and Makoto Miura and Laura Monfregola and S. Moriyama and Th. A. Mueller and Akira Murakami and Matthew Murdoch and Sebastien Murphy and Jordan Myslik and Takao Nagasaki and Takeshi Nakadaira and Masayuki Nakahata and Takuya Nakai and Kyo Nakajima and K. D. Nakamura and Shoei Nakayama and Tsuyoshi Nakaya and Kazuo Nakayoshi and Donna Lynne Naples and Tim Nicholls and C. Nielsen and M. Nirkko and Koichiro Nishikawa and Yasuhiro Nishimura and Helen O'Keeffe and Yoshihisa Obayashi and R M Ohta and Kimihiro Okumura and Toru Okusawa and W. Oryszczak and Sean M. Oser and Minoru Otani and R. A. Owen and Yuichi Oyama and Myoung Youl Pac and Vittorio Palladino and Vittorio Paolone and D. J. B. Payne and George F. Pearce and Oleg Perevozchikov and Jonathan Perkin and Yevgeniy Petrov and E. S. Pinzon Guerra and Piotr Plonski and Elżbieta Popławska and Boris A. Popov and Magdalena Zofia Posiadała and J-M. Poutissou and R. Poutissou and Paweł Przewłocki and Benjamin Quilain and Emilio Radicioni and Peter Ratoff and Melody Ravonel and Mark Alastair Rayner and M. Reeves and Erez Reinherz-Aronis and Fabrice Reti{\`e}re and Arnaud Robert and P. A. Rodrigues and Ewa Rondio and Stefan Roth and Andr{\'e} Rubbia and Daniel Ruterbories and Riccardo Sacco and Ken Sakashita and Fjm Sanchez and Enrico Scantamburlo and Kate Scholberg and Jackie Schwehr and Mark Scott and D. I. Scully and Y. Seiya and T. Sekiguchi and Hiroyuki Sekiya and Davide Sgalaberna and Masaru Shibata and Masato Shiozawa and S. Short and Y. Shustrov and P. Sinclair and B. Smith and R. J. E. Smith and Michael Burghard Smy and Jan T. Sobczyk and Henry W. Sobel and Marc Sorel and Luke Southwell and P. Stamoulis and Jochen Steinmann and Benjamin Still and Alfredo Takashi Suzuki and Keisuke Suzuki and S. Y. Suzuki and Yu Suzuki and T. Szegłowski and M. Szeptycka and Roman Tacik and Masahiro Tada and S. Takahashi and Atsushi Takeda and Yuji Takeuchi and H. A. Tanaka and M. Tanaka and M. Tanaka and I. J. Taylor and Dennis Terhorst and Ryan Terri and Lee F. Thompson and Alexander Thorley and S. Tobayama and W. H. Toki and Tomonobu Tomura and Yoji Totsuka and C. Touramanis and Toshifumi Tsukamoto and Martin Tzanov and Yoshi Uchida and Keiji Ueno and Antonin Vacheret and Mark Robert Vagins and Georges Vasseur and Tomasz Wachala and Abigail Victoria Waldron and C. W. Walter and David Lee Wark and Morgan O'hagan Wascko and Andreas Weber and R. A. Wendell and R. J. Wilkes and Michael Wilking and Callum Wilkinson and Z. Williamson and J. Richard Wilson and R J Wilson and Taritree Wongjirad and Y. Yamada and K. Yamamoto and Chiaki Yanagisawa and Stanley Yen and Nikolay Yershov and Masashi Yokoyama and T. Yuan and Agnieszka Zalewska and Laura Zambelli and Krzysztof Zaremba and Marek Ziembicki and Eric D. Zimmerman and Marco Zito and Jakub Żmuda},
  journal={Physical Review D},
  year={2013},
  volume={88},
  pages={032002}
}
The T2K collaboration reports evidence for electron neutrino appearance at the atmospheric mass splitting, |\Delta m_{32}^2|=2.4x10^{-3} eV^2. An excess of electron neutrino interactions over background is observed from a muon neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV at the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector 295 km from the beam's origin. Signal and background predictions are constrained by data from near detectors located 280 m from the neutrino production target. We observe 11 electron… Expand
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